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1.
F <span style="font-variant: small-caps" class="small-caps">igure</span>  2.—

F igure 2.—. From: The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

Both daytime and nighttime sleep are reduced in the ecdysteroid-deficient mutant DTS-3. (A) Sleep patterns of control Samarkand and DTS-3/+ flies. Total sleep amount (B), average sleep-bout duration (C), maximum sleep-bout duration (D), wake-bout duration (E), and average waking activity (F) were calculated separately for daytime and nighttime sleep data. Data for control flies, DTS-3/+ and DTS-3/+ mutants treated with 20E, are presented in blue, red, and green, respectively. N = 51 for control and DTS-3/+, N = 36 for DTS-3/+ treated with 20E. *, P < 0.05. Error bars represent the SEM.

Hiroshi Ishimoto, et al. Genetics. 2010 May;185(1):269-281.
2.
F <span style="font-variant: small-caps" class="small-caps">igure</span>  3.—

F igure 3.—. From: The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

Daytime sleep is reduced in heterozygous loss-of-function EcR mutants. Sleep patterns (A, B, E, and F) and total sleep amount (C, D, G, and H) are shown for EMS-induced (EcRA483T) or transposon P-element-induced (EcRNP5219) EcR mutants. All mutants were examined as heterozygotes. The total amount of sleep during the day (ZT 0–12) and during the night (ZT 12–24) were calculated separately, for flies of the indicated genotype and sex. Data for control flies and mutants are presented in blue and red, respectively. N = 65 (control and EcRA483T/+ female), N = 66 (control and EcRA483T/+ male), N = 66 (control and EcRNP5219/+). **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; n.s., no significant difference. Error bars represent the SEM.

Hiroshi Ishimoto, et al. Genetics. 2010 May;185(1):269-281.
3.
F <span style="font-variant: small-caps" class="small-caps">igure</span>  1.—

F igure 1.—. From: The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

Both daytime and nighttime sleep increase in a dose-dependent manner in response to treatment with exogenous 20E. (A) Sleep patterns of flies treated with 20E at various concentrations are represented by green (0.01 mm), orange (0.1 mm), and red (1 mm) lines, and the baseline sleep pattern in untreated flies is represented by blue lines. Average values for the total amount of sleep (B), sleep-bout duration (C), wake-bout duration (D), and waking activity (E) at each concentration of 20E were calculated separately for daytime and nighttime sleep data. N = 93 for each 20E concentration. *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.001; n.s., no significant difference. Error bars represent the SEM.

Hiroshi Ishimoto, et al. Genetics. 2010 May;185(1):269-281.
4.
F <span style="font-variant: small-caps" class="small-caps">igure</span>  4.—

F igure 4.—. From: The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

Sleep deficiency is severe in EcR-mutant trans-heterozygotes. Sleep patterns (A and B), total sleep amount (C and D), sleep-bout duration (E and F), maximum sleep-bout length (G and H), wake-bout duration (I and J), and waking activity (K and L) were calculated from sleep data for EcRA483T/ EcRNP5219 trans-heterozygotes. Data for control flies, EcRA483T/ EcRNP5219 and EcRA483T/EcRNP5219 treated with 0.1 mm 20E, are presented in blue, red, and green. Sex is indicated above each graph. N = 58 (male), N = 66 (female). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; n.s., no significant difference. Error bars represent the SEM.

Hiroshi Ishimoto, et al. Genetics. 2010 May;185(1):269-281.
5.
F <span style="font-variant: small-caps" class="small-caps">igure</span>  5.—

F igure 5.—. From: The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

Sleep is promoted by the conditional expression of certain EcR subtypes in the mushroom bodies. The A, B1, and B2 isoform of EcR were expressed in mushroom bodies using the RU486-inducible Gal4 driver MB-GS–Gal4. (A, B, and C) Sleep patterns in RU486-treated and untreated flies. The induced EcR isoforms are indicated to the left of the sleep pattern. The total sleep amount (D), sleep-bout duration (E), and waking activity (F) were calculated from each set of sleep data. Data for RU486-treated and -untreated flies are presented in red and blue, respectively. N = 55 for each genotype. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; n.s., no significant difference. Error bars represent the SEM.

Hiroshi Ishimoto, et al. Genetics. 2010 May;185(1):269-281.
6.
F <span style="font-variant: small-caps" class="small-caps">igure</span>  6.—

F igure 6.—. From: The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

The homeostatic sleep response is defective in flies with reduced ecdysone signaling. (A, B, and C) Sleep patterns are depicted for the sleep response after 12 hr sleep deprivation. (D, E, and F) The ratio of the regained sleep/sleep loss was calculated for each genotype. (G, H, and I) The Δ sleep-bout duration indicates the homeostatic response to compensate for the lost sleep. Data for control flies and mutants are presented in blue and red, respectively. Genotypes and sex are indicated above each graph. (J) The total amount of 20E was measured in flies without (baseline, open bar) or with sleep deprivation (with SD, solid bar). N = 42 (EcRA483T/EcRNP5219 and control), N = 36 (DTS-3/+ and control), N = 8 (20E measurement). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. Error bars represent the SEM.

Hiroshi Ishimoto, et al. Genetics. 2010 May;185(1):269-281.

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