Results: 2

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Verbal and Nonverbal Memory in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

shows the learning slopes for TR for each group for each test. To facilitate analysis of these patterns, as noted above, the slope for the total recall variable was calculated for each participant and used as the dependent variable in a MANOVA procedure with Exposure group as the independent variable. This learning slope was significantly different by group for Verbal but not Nonverbal memory although a trend was noted (). Planned comparisons indicated that, for the Verbal task, the mean for the Control group was significantly greater than those of both the Dysmorphic and Special Education Groups; the mean for the Alcohol Exposed group was significantly greater than that for the Dysmorphic group. For the Nonverbal task, the Control group performed significantly better than the Dysmorphic Group

Claire D. Coles, et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. ;34(5):897-906.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Verbal and Nonverbal Memory in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

In the current study, different modalities were evaluated using similar recall tasks. There are 8 learning trials for both the VSRT and the NVSRT. For the verbal task, we used Form 2 of the VSRT in which the individual is required to recall a list of 12 unrelated words that are orally presented at the rate of 1 word every 2 seconds (The words are: Shine, Disagree, Fat, Wealthy, Drunk, Pin, Grass, Moon, Prepare, Prize, Duck, Leaf). After the first recall trial, the person is read, in the same order that they were initially presented, only those words that were not recalled on the last trial. The person is then instructed to recall all the words, including those they recalled on the previous trial. On subsequent trials, the same administration occurs, with reminders given only of the words that were not recalled on the last trial, and the person is asked to say all the words on the list. In an analogous procedure, the NVSRT consists of an array of 8 different dot patterns, each arranged in a separate box (see ). The examiner points one at a time to a targeted dot in each of the boxes, and, at recall, the person is required to point to the targeted dot in each of the 8 boxes. After the first trial, the examiner points, in the same order that they were initially presented, to boxes where a dot placement was not recalled, and the person is asked again to locate the correct target dot in all of the 8 boxes, including those that did not require reminders. After a 30 minute delay, the participant is asked to recall the stimulus items. These Selective Reminding measures were embedded in a longer battery of neuropsychological measures and were not presented sequentially.

Claire D. Coles, et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. ;34(5):897-906.

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