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1.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Simulated Manhattan plots in a 10-Mb region.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

(A) This region has nine rare causal variants selected at random with GRR = 4 and 3,000 cases and 3,000 controls. (B) The same region with permuted phenotypes shows what the region would look like without any association.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. The proportion of simulations with a variant of genome-wide significance separated by disease class.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

Increasing the number of causal variants generally increases the probability of creating synthetic associations by increasing the size of the disease class without increasing the allele frequency of causal variants. Within disease class, increasing the number of causal variants decreases the probability of creating synthetic association.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
3.
Figure 8

Figure 8. Overview of the GJB2/GJB6 locus on 13q12.11 in the hearing loss GWAS.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

The three most significantly associated SNPs have weak LD between each other. Although the most common causal variants (35delG) within GJB2 has a frequency of only 1.25% in European Americans, the locus can still be identified by GWAS with common tagging SNPs.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Mean and variance of r2 between rare and common sites as a function of rate of recombination.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

A total of 100,000 simulations of two loci with multiple variants in each loci show how the mean and variance of estimates of r2 between rare and common variants are affected by recombination. Although the mean is a nonincreasing function of recombination, the variance increases then decreases, which shows why the maximum r2 between rare and common variants can increase with low amounts of recombination in a region.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
5.
Figure 7

Figure 7. The 2.5-Mb genomic region on chr11p15.4 containing 179 genome-wide significant synthetic associations with sickle cell anemia in African Americans.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

The −log10(p) values for all genome-wide significant SNPs were displayed in the upper track, whereas the LD patterns based on HapMap YRI (Yoruba people of Ibadan, Nigeria) population is displayed in the lower track. The region contains dozens of genes spanning several discernible LD blocks.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
6.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Allele frequency distributions of all HapMap SNPs (black), Illumina 1M SNPs (blue), and GWAS associations in CEU (red), and simulated synthetic associations (green).. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

The allele frequencies show both minor and major allele frequencies. GWAS associations have a clear tendency towards the center, representing greater power to detect association with variants with higher minor allele frequencies. CEU = population of western European ancestry.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
7.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Example genealogies showing causal variants and the strongest association for a common variant.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

(A) A genealogy with 10,000 original haplotypes was generated with 3,000 cases and 3,000 controls, genotype relative risk (γ) = 4, and nine causal variants. The branches containing the strongest synthetic association are indicated in blue. The branches containing the rare causal variants are in red. (B) A second genealogy was generated using the same parameters. These genealogies demonstrate two scenarios with genome-wide significant synthetic associations: the first (upper genealogy) had a high risk allele frequency (RAF = 0.49), and the second (lower genealogy) had a low RAF (0.08).

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.
8.
Figure 2

Figure 2. The proportion of simulations with a variant of genome-wide significance.. From: Rare Variants Create Synthetic Genome-Wide Associations.

Results for rare variants are shown in red; for the top hit among common variants, results are shown in black; and in blue are the results for the next best hit for common variants after including the top hit in the regression model. At the bottom of each graph, the simulation parameters are represented graphically. Results across all parameters with no recombination are shown in (A) with the shaded region representing the effect size at which linkage analysis is expected to begin generating consistent signals (GRR = 4). Results for simulations that included recombination are shown in (B). The shaded region in (B) is the same as the shaded region in (A), with the rate of recombination for the same parameters increasing along the x-axis.

Samuel P. Dickson, et al. PLoS Biol. 2010 January;8(1):e1000294.

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