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Results: 4

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Correlation between the shift in() and the peak of the EMG burst (). From: Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping.

Each subject is represented by two data points, one for platform up and one for platform down. Positive numbers indicate the situation in which the event ( or EMG peak) is delayed compared to the level position (platform down); negative numbers are situations in which those events are shifted ahead (platform up).

Abraham T Zuur, et al. J Physiol. 2010 March 1;588(Pt 5):799-807.
2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. TMS-evoked EMG suppression during the early EMG burst. From: Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping.

A, ensemble averaged EMG and kinematic data (80 sweeps) of the stimulated and unstimulated condition from a single subject showing a TMS-evoked EMG suppression in SOL, GM and TA (shaded). Time 0 is aligned with ground contact. B, the same data zoomed in the x-direction. The dashed line indicates the time of the TMS stimulus and the dotted line the onset of suppression.

Abraham T Zuur, et al. J Physiol. 2010 March 1;588(Pt 5):799-807.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Raw and ensemble averaged EMG and kinematics during hopping in a single subject. From: Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping.

A, raw EMG and kinematics from three hops. ▾ indicates an artefact in the force signal due to acceleration and deceleration of the platform. ♦ indicates the point where the ankle angle shows a maximal dorsiflexion acceleration . B, ensemble average of 25 sweeps for the conditions ‘Up’, ‘Level’ and ‘Down’. All averaged trials are aligned to the crossing of the light barrier. Note that the platform in the ‘Up’ position causes a shift in the signals for ankle angle, ground reaction force and the EMG burst in SOL ahead in time whereas the ‘Down’ position delays these signals in time.

Abraham T Zuur, et al. J Physiol. 2010 March 1;588(Pt 5):799-807.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Averaged time points during hopping with time 0 indicating the crossing of the light barrier. From: Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping.

The white background indicates the moving platform protocol. ‘Up’, ‘Level’ and ‘Down’ refer to the position of the platform. The grey background indicates the TMS protocol, ‘Control’ refers to unstimulated trials and ‘TMS’ refers to trials with a subthreshold TMS stimulus. Error bars at the start and end of the bar indicate the s.e.m. of the time of that event relative to the crossing of the light barrier, while the numbers written in the bar indicate the time between the events ±s.e.m.A, the timings of touch-down detected by the vertical force on the platform ±s.e.m. In B the beginning of the bar shows the time of and the end indicates peak of the early EMG burst and thus the length of the bar indicates the duration between those events. It can be seen that the time between and the peak of the early EMG burst remains the same in the three conditions. Only the time of is displayed in the stimulated condition of the TMS protocol since the position of the peak is concealed by the after-effects of the suppression. In C‘TMS stimulus’ indicates the time point where the TMS stimulus is delivered. ‘Suppression’ represents the average timing and duration of the suppression. By comparing it with the control condition in Fig. 3B), it can be seen that the suppression is timed just prior to the peak of the early EMG burst.

Abraham T Zuur, et al. J Physiol. 2010 March 1;588(Pt 5):799-807.

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