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1.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Pericortical white matter abnormalities. Regions of low anisotropy (A) and high diffusivity (B) were broadly distributed underneath the cortical mantle, with similar spatial distributions in both sessions (point-wise, z > 1.5, shown without the cluster threshold).

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Representative axial slices from clinical MRI scans of the TBI patient. T1-weighted (top row), FLAIR (middle row) and T2-weighted images. The scans were interpreted as normal at the initial neuroradiological examination. Images are displayed according to radiological convention (right side of the brain is shown on the left side of figure).

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
3.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Histograms showing the lobar measurements from the patient in relation to the distributions for the control group. The distribution of cortical thickness, cortical mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of pericortical white matter across 43 control subjects are shown for each lobe. The red dots indicate the corresponding measures from the patient's two imaging sessions.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
4.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Regional cortical gray matter abnormalities detected by SBM in the TBI patient. Reduced cortical thickness (A) and increased cortical gray matter diffusivity (B) were most pronounced in the frontal lobes in two imaging sessions. Each row shows lateral and medial inflated views of the two hemispheres. Color bar shows z-values.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
5.
Figure 9

Figure 9. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Combined assessment of cortical abnormalities. Joint tests of significant cortical gray matter and pericortical white matter abnormalities using Fisher's combined probability test revealed extensive abnormalities, concentrated mainly in the frontal lobes and basal occipito-temporal regions. The spatial distribution of the abnormalities replicated on the two different imaging sessions.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

A, B. Cortical gray matter and pericortical tissue properties quantified along the cortical mantle in control subjects. Mean values (A) and variability (B, coefficient of variation) for cortical thickness, cortical mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of pericortical white matter (2 mm below the gray-white boundary) for control subjects are shown for each point on the surfaces of the two hemispheres. The corpus callosum is cut out, and the regions with very low values (e.g., thickness < 1 mm, coefficient of variation < 1%) appear in gray.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
7.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Co-registration of the TBI patient's cortical surface anatomy with the Freesurfer atlas. An accurate parcellation of the cortical surface was produced by Freesurfer shown superimposed on the semi-inflated surface of the patient (sulci = dark, gyri light). Cortical regions are accurately labeled. Anatomical labels: Calc, calcarine sulcus; Cent, central sulcus; CinG, cingulate gyrus; CinS, cingulate sulcus; Cun, cuneus; IPS, interparietal sulcus; Ling, lingual gyrus; MFG, medial frontal gyrus; MTG, medial temporal gyrus; Pre, precentral gyrus; Post, postcentral gyrus; Orb, orbital sulcus; OTS, occipito-temporal sulcus; STG, superior temporal gyrus; STS, superior temporal sulcus; TOS, transverse occipital sulcus.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
8.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

SBM image processing steps: Surface reconstruction and alignment to standard template. A. High-resolution T1-weighted images were processed using FreeSurfer 3.0 to map the cortical surface. The image is a lateral view of the TBI patient's left hemisphere. B. Computerized reconstruction of the gray/white matter boundary. A smoothed and expanded view of the white matter surface is shown. The image has been intensity normalized, skull-stripped and the cerebellum has been removed. C. Inflation of the cortical surface to map gyral and sulcal anatomy. Gyral regions are shown in green and sulcal regions in red. D. Coregistration of the subject's cortical surface to a common spherical template. This step allows the assessment of cortical tissue properties with respect to a normative database using a common coordinate system.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.
9.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury..

Quantification of tissue properties in the cerebral cortex and in pericortical white matter. Two surfaces were defined from the T1-weighted anatomical images (left column): in mid-gray matter (red) and 2 mm below the gray-white matter boundary (blue). White matter fractional anisotropy (middle) was quantified 2-mm below the gray/white boundary and mean diffusivity (right) was quantified in both the cortical gray matter and the white matter surfaces. Parasagittal (left hemisphere) and axial (above the lateral ventricles) cross-sections from the TBI patient's first imaging session are shown. High intensity regions on the FA map correspond to major fiber bundles running parallel to the cortical surface. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the cortex appears bright on the MD map.

And U Turken, et al. BMC Med Imaging. 2009;9:20-20.

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