Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Pharmacological facilitation of fear extinction and the search for adjunct treatments for anxiety disorders - the case of yohimbine.

A commonly employed procedure for testing the effects of putative extinction-facilitating drugs such as yohimbine in rodents. On Day 1, subjects undergo Pavlovian fear conditioning in which a previous innocuous stimulus, for example auditory tone, (conditioned stimulus, CS) is repeatedly paired with an aversive stimulus, for example footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US). The fear response to the tone is often measured by quantifying freezing. On Day 2, subjects are treated with the drug (or an appropriate vehicle control) and then undergo partial fear extinction training in which CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US. On Day 3, extinction retrieval is tested. If drug treatment was effective in facilitating fear extinction, the fear response to the CS in drug-treated subjects will be significantly less than in vehicle-treated controls.

Andrew Holmes, et al. Trends Pharmacol Sci. ;31(1):2-7.

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