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Results: 6

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis.

LA decreases aortic lipid accumulation and macrophage content. Thoracic aortic sections of WHHL rabbits were stained with anti-CD68 (A, B, and C); anti-α-Actin (D, E, and F); oil red O (G, H, and I); Masson’s trichrome (J, K, and L). A representative picture (A, D, G, and J) and the summary (B, E, H, and K as % of wall; C, F, J, and L as % of plaque) are presented. *p<0.05 vs control animals.

Zhekang Ying, et al. Life Sci. ;86(3-4):95-102.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis.

LA improves endothelial function. Thoracic aorta was isolated and mounted on a myograph. Aortic rings were then pre-constricted by PE (0.1 μM), and the response to graded doses of acetylcholine (A) and insulin (B) were analyzed. Results were expressed as percentage of pre-constriction. n = 5/group. *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01 vs control animals. The constrictive response to angiotensin II (C) and endothelin-1 (D) were analyzed. Results were expressed as percentage of contraction to KCl (120 mM). *, p<0.05 vs control animals.

Zhekang Ying, et al. Life Sci. ;86(3-4):95-102.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis.

LA decreases atherosclerosis burden in WHHL rabbits. A and B, Atherosclerotic burden in abdominal aorta of WHHL rabbits were analyzed by serial MRI at the indicated time points. A representative picture (A) and the summary of the whole group (B) are presented. **, p<0.01 vs control animals. C and D, The descending thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbits were subject to H&E staining, and en-face atherosclerotic area analyzed as described in methods. Two representative pictures (C) and the summary (D) are presented. *, p<0.05 vs control animals.

Zhekang Ying, et al. Life Sci. ;86(3-4):95-102.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis.

LA decreases vascular oxidative stress. A and B, 8-isoprostane levels in plasma (A) and aortic homogenates (B) were measured by EIA. *, p<0.05;**, p<0.01; students’t test. C and D, aortic superoxide generation was analyzed by dihydroethidium staining. A representative picture (C) and the summary of results (D) are shown. ;**, p<0.01; students’t test. E, Basal and stimulated superoxide production in aortic tissue lysates was analyzed by Lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. The arrow indicates the addition of NADPH (100 μM). *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01 vs. control animals.

Zhekang Ying, et al. Life Sci. ;86(3-4):95-102.
5.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis.

LA decreases T lymphocyte infiltration in atherosclerotic plaque. A and B, immunohistochemical analysis of thoracic aorta with anti-CD3. A representative image (A) and the summary (B) are presented. *p<0.05 vs control animals. C and D, the effect of LA on the transmigration of jurkat T cells in response to chemokine SDF-1 (100ng/ml, C) and RANTES (100ng/ml, D). Data are presented as the mean of 8 wells ± SD. *, P < 0.05; **, p < 0.01, student’s t test adjusted by bonferroni correction. E and F, the transmigration of leukocytes isolated from control and LA-fed rabbits in response to chemokine SDF-1 (100 ng/ml, E) and RANTES (100 ng/ml, F). *, P < 0.05; student’s t test.

Zhekang Ying, et al. Life Sci. ;86(3-4):95-102.
6.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Lipoic acid effects on established atherosclerosis.

LA inhibits inflammatory gene expression and NF-κB signaling in the vasculature. A, Total RNA were prepared from thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbits. The mRNA expression level of pro-inflammatory genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. *, p<0.05; students’t test adjusted by Bonferroni correction. B and C, Total proteins were prepared from thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbits. The protein expression levels of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were analyzed by western blot. The western blot (B) and densitometric quantification (C) are shown. *, p<0.05; students’t test. D and E, Nuclear and cytosolic proteins were prepared from thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbits. NF-κB (p65) was analyzed by western blot. The gel image (D) and quantification of western blot results (E) are shown. *, p<0.05; students’t test. F and G, Nuclear extracts were prepared from thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbits, the DNA binding activity of NF-κB was measured with lightshift chemiluminescent EMSA kit. The image (F) and quantification (G) are presented.

Zhekang Ying, et al. Life Sci. ;86(3-4):95-102.

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