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Results: 5

1.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Sensitivity of neural-hemodynamic coupling to alterations in cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia.

Schematic overview of the multicompartment forward model. The multicompartment model of the vascular network describes the temporal evolution of the evoked hemodynamic states as a result of neuronally linked changes in the resistance of arterial smooth muscle and changes in the oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in the extravascular space. In (a), we show an overview of the entire vascular model consisting of the vascular, oxygen transport, and observation models.21 (b) and (c), show schematics of the vascular and oxygen transport components of the model.

Theodore J. Huppert, et al. J Biomed Opt. ;14(4):044038-044038.
2.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Sensitivity of neural-hemodynamic coupling to alterations in cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia.

Neuro-metabolic-vascular coupling. In this figure, we show the relationships between flow and metabolism changes and the electrophysiological measurements. In each panel, the relative change (flow or CMRO2) is given on the left-side axis (red line). Absolute changes in flow and CMRO2 (determined by renormalization to the baseline estimate as described in the text) are given by the right-side axis (black line). Hypercapnic responses are indicated with open symbols. ANOVA analysis of the differences between the normal and hypercapnic coupling is shown in Table 5. (Color online only).

Theodore J. Huppert, et al. J Biomed Opt. ;14(4):044038-044038.
3.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Sensitivity of neural-hemodynamic coupling to alterations in cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia.

Model estimates of arterial diameter and CMRO2 changes. In column (a), the temporal dynamics of the evoked CMRO2 (top row) and arterial diameter changes estimated by the model are plotted for the nine stimulus conditions (hypercapnic time courses are indicated with an asterisk). Column (b) shows the peak magnitude of CMRO2 and CBF changes versus stimulus condition. The left-side axis (red lines) shows the relative CBF and CMRO2 changes, whereas the right-side axis (black lines) shows the absolute changes. Column (c) shows parametric plots of the CBF versus CMRO2 changes for comparison of the flow-consumption ratio. (Color online only.)

Theodore J. Huppert, et al. J Biomed Opt. ;14(4):044038-044038.
4.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Sensitivity of neural-hemodynamic coupling to alterations in cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia.

Model fits of evoked hemodynamic changes. This figure shows the group-averaged hemodynamic responses (dotted lines; error bars indicate StdErr) under normal and hypercapnic conditions for stimulus conditions 3,6, and 9. The solid lines show the best fit of the model using these data points. Relative blood flow, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total-hemoglobin changes are shown in black, red, blue, and green, respectively. The R-squared (goodness of fit) for the modeling of the full multimodal data is given above each plot. (Color online only.)

Theodore J. Huppert, et al. J Biomed Opt. ;14(4):044038-044038.
5.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Sensitivity of neural-hemodynamic coupling to alterations in cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia.

Evoked hemodynamic and neuronal response. Columns (a) and (b) show the evoked hemodynamic changes, MUA, and LFP responses to whisker stimulation (conditions 3, 6, and 9) under normal and hypercapnic conditions. These responses show the ΔCBF, ΔHbO, ΔHbR, and ΔHbT (change) from baseline. Symbols are used to indicate condition 3 (▼), 6 (▲), and 9 (■) responses. The average MUA and LFP responses over the stimulus train are shown in rows 2 and 3. The response to stimulus conditions 3, 6, and 9 are shown in blue, green, and red, respectively, and are indicated by the neighboring text. The MUA and LFP responses are shown for the entire 2-sec stimulus train (inset figures) and response to a single deflection (averaged over train of responses). Column (c) shows the peak response amplitudes for the nine stimulus conditions. Open symbols indicate the hypercapnic data. The magnitudes of the LFP responses have been inverted for better visualization in column (c). Error bars indicate the standard deviation across the seven animals. The horizontal lines in (a) and (b) indicate the heights of the normal responses. (Color online only.)

Theodore J. Huppert, et al. J Biomed Opt. ;14(4):044038-044038.

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