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1.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Brain Structure and Obesity.

Maps of correlation coefficients are shown for a group comparison of 51 overweight persons (BMI: 25–30) versus 29 normal weight persons (18.5–25). Atrophy in the overweight group is seen in the basal ganglia (part a – black arrow; part b – red arrow; part c – blue arrow), corona radiata (part b, black box), and parietal lobe (part c, purple arrow). Correlations range from 0 to 0.5.

Cyrus A. Raji, et al. Hum Brain Mapp. ;31(3):353-364.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Brain Structure and Obesity.

The r-value image in part a shows the negative correlation between a categorical diagnosis of DM2 and atrophy in GM and WM. DM2 is associated with lower volumes in splenium of the corpus callosum Figure 3b, significance map, black arrow, corresponding r-value = −.21 at x = −4, y = 14, z = −17), genu of the corpus callosum (Figure 3b, green arrow, corresponding r-value = −.17 at x = 4, y = −49, z = 1) and the frontal lobes (Figure 3b, red arrow, corresponding r-value = −.24 at x = −7, y = −77, z = 7). All results in this image were projected onto the CHS-MDT.

Cyrus A. Raji, et al. Hum Brain Mapp. ;31(3):353-364.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Brain Structure and Obesity.

Correlation map (r-value image) effect sizes for a comparison of 14 obese persons (BMI > 30) to 29 normal weight persons (18.5–25). Obese persons had lower GM and WM volumes in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyrus (part a, blue arrow), hippocampus (part b, black arrow), and basal ganglia (part c, green box). Correlation coefficients range from 0 to 0.5.

Cyrus A. Raji, et al. Hum Brain Mapp. ;31(3):353-364.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Brain Structure and Obesity.

This figure shows map of correlation values (r-value map) projected onto the Standard Single Subject MNI brain template for display purposes. The correlation shown is between higher BMI and GM/WM atrophy controlling for age, gender, race and DM2. Hotter colors denote stronger correlation effect sizes, which range from 0 to 0.4. Higher BMI was associated with lower GM and WM volumes in orbital frontal cortex (part a, blue box), anterior cingulate gyrus (part a, blue box), medial temporal lobe (part b, black arrows), and subcortical WM (part c, black asterisks).

Cyrus A. Raji, et al. Hum Brain Mapp. ;31(3):353-364.
5.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Brain Structure and Obesity.

Part a shows a correlation map projected onto the CHS-MDT template indicating where brain atrophy (volume reduction) is related to higher fasting plasma insulin levels. Higher FPI is correlated to lower volumes of the splenium of the corpus callosum (red arrow: x = −3, y = 12, z = −12, r = −.27), orbital frontal cortex (orange arrow: x = −3, y = −39, z = 31, r = −.33) and hippocampus (gold arrows: left at x = −24, y = −1, z = 24, r = −.31; right at x = 31, x = 3, z = 21, r = −.33). Part b shows the corresponding significance maps.

Cyrus A. Raji, et al. Hum Brain Mapp. ;31(3):353-364.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Brain Structure and Obesity.

Part a shows a r-value (Pearson correlation coefficient) map highlighting the negative and positive correlations between BMI and brain structure projected onto cardinal sections of the Cardiovascular Health Study Minimal Deformation Template (CHS-MDT). Blue colors show stronger negative correlations while red and yellow colors show positive correlations; only negative correlations were statistically significant (p < 0.001; permutations test). An inverse association between BMI and brain volume is observed in orbital frontal cortex (red arrow at x = −9, y = 57, z = 29, r = −.31), the hippocampus (gold arrows: left at x = −31, y = −2, z = 25, r = −.32; right at x = 32, x = 9, z = 18, r = −.31) and subcortical areas (white asterisks: left at x = −28, y = −14, z = 1, r = −.30; right at x = 29, y = −15, z = 1, r = −.34) including the putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus. Part b shows a p-value image of BMI main effects on brain structure projected onto the CHS-MDT. All images are in neurological convention (left on left). Dark colors indicate atrophy in both GM and WM; darker colors denote lower p-values.

Cyrus A. Raji, et al. Hum Brain Mapp. ;31(3):353-364.

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