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Results: 3

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Frontal Lobe Volume Residual z-scores in Male Subjects with Schizophrenia Receiving Either a Typical or Atypical Antipsychotic Medication. From: In-Vivo evidence of differential impact of typical and atypical antipsychotics on intracortical myelin in adults with schizophrenia.

Frontal lobe = total frontal lobe (white plus gray matter), WMIR = frontal lobe white matter volume measured on IR images, GMIR = frontal lobe gray matter volume measured on IR images, WMPD = frontal lobe white matter volume measured on PD images, GMPD = frontal lobe gray matter volume measured on PD images; ICM = intracortical myelination.
Between group tests (risperidone vs. fluphenazine): *p<0.05.
Within group tests (schizophrenic vs. healthy controls, standardized to mean = 0 and SD = 1): +p < 0.05, ++p < 0.01, +++p < 0.001.

George Bartzokis, et al. Schizophr Res. ;113(2-3):322-331.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Quadratic (inverted U) trajectories of human brain myelination over the lifespan. From: In-Vivo evidence of differential impact of typical and atypical antipsychotics on intracortical myelin in adults with schizophrenia.

Myelination (Y axis) versus age (X axis) in frontal lobes of normal individuals. Left panel is in vivo data from Bartzokis et al (2001). Right panel shows post-mortem intracortical myelin stain data from Kaes (1907) adapted and reproduced in Kemper (1994) depicting the heavy myelination of the lower cortical layers. Used with permission. The data were acquired 100 years apart yet the two samples of normal individuals show remarkably similar frontal lobe myelination trajectories, both reaching a peak at age 45.

George Bartzokis, et al. Schizophr Res. ;113(2-3):322-331.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. In Vivo Measure of Frontal Lobe Intracortical Myelin Volume. From: In-Vivo evidence of differential impact of typical and atypical antipsychotics on intracortical myelin in adults with schizophrenia.

Left: Proton density (PD) image that is not sensitive to the cholesterol in myelin. The black region of interest (ROI) line depicts the border between the gray and white matter (WM). This same gray/white separation line is depicted in the image on the right as the gray line inside the white line.
Right: Inversion recovery (IR) Image of the same slice of brain as in the PD image on the left (both images obtained sequentially in the same imaging session). The IR image optimally detects the high cholesterol in myelin and is used to obtain the “myelinated WM volume” that includes heavily myelinated parts of the deeper portions of gray matter (see Figure 1). The white ROI line separates myelinated WM and unmyelinated portion of gray matter. The difference between the gray and white lines is the measure of intracortical myelination.

George Bartzokis, et al. Schizophr Res. ;113(2-3):322-331.

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