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Results: 5

1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Progenitor cell (Nestin-IR) number decreased with increasing age. From: Antidepressants increase neural progenitor cells in the human hippocampus.

(a) Increasing age was associated with fewer progenitor cells (Nestin-IR) in subjects with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (MDDT*SSRI) or tryciclics (MDDT*TCA). (b, c) In controls (C) and in untreated MDD subjects, the decrease in progenitor cell number with age did not reach statistical significance. (d) Age did not affect the number of dividing cells (Ki-67-IR) in any of the groups.

Maura Boldrini, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. ;34(11):2376-2389.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Nestin-immunoreactive (-IR) cells and vessels in the dentate gyrus (DG) from a 29 years old male with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who was not on medication (a) and a 31 years old male MDD who was treated with fluoxetine (b). From: Antidepressants increase neural progenitor cells in the human hippocampus.

(a) The subgranular zone (SGZ) and granule cell layer (GCL) are indicated. Cells are stained for Nissl with Cresyl Violet. Nestin-IR cells and vessels appear in brown. (b) The fluoxetine-treated MDD shows more prominent nestin-IR cells processes and vessels compared to the untreated MDD (in a).

Maura Boldrini, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. ;34(11):2376-2389.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Human dentate gyrus (DG) treated with double-labeling immunocytochemistry for nestin and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and stained for Nissl substance. The subject was a 57-year-old female control with no medication. From: Antidepressants increase neural progenitor cells in the human hippocampus.

(a) The granular cell layer (GCL) appears in blue, GFAP-immunoreactive (-IR) cells stained with diaminobenzidine (DAB) appear brown. GFAP labels astrocytes in all subregions of the hippocampus (b) GFAP-IR cells are ubiquitously located throughout the hilus. (c) GFAP-IR cells located in the subgranular zone (SGZ) show processes that extend toward the molecular layer (ML), crossing the GCL. A GFAP-IR cell is seen in the SGZ near the lower edge of the picture (arrow). (d) GFAP-IR cells in the hilus at higher magnification. Astrocytes do not stain for nestin, but they do stain for GFAP (e, f) Nestin-IR cells (in black) appear along the SGZ (arrows).

Maura Boldrini, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. ;34(11):2376-2389.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Neural progenitor and dividing cells are increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of subjects with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who were treated with antidepressants (MDDT) compared to untreated MDDs and controls (C). From: Antidepressants increase neural progenitor cells in the human hippocampus.

(a) Progenitor cells (Nestin-IR) were higher in MDDT treated with tryciclics (MDDT*TCA), as well as in MDDT treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (MDDT*SSRI) compared to untreated MDD and C (F = 984.105; df = 3,17; p ≤ 0.001). (b) Dividing cells (Ki-67-IR) were higher in MDD*TCA compared to the other groups (F = 16.243; df = 3,17; p ≤ 0.001). (c) Number of progenitor cells (Nestin-IR) in sections located in the anterior versus posterior hippocampal formation (error bars represent S.D.) (d) Number of dividing cells (Ki-67-IR) in sections located in the anterior versus posterior hippocampal formation (error bars represent S.D.) (e) DG volume in MDDT subjects treated with TCAs was larger compared to controls and MDD (F = 5.450; df = 3,17; p = 0.010) but not different from MDDT receiving SSRIs. (f) Image of one of the hippocampus sections showing the DG stained for Nissl (in blue). The outline defines the region of interest, within which cells were counted using stereology.

Maura Boldrini, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. ;34(11):2376-2389.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Immunocytochemistry for NeuN, nestin, double labeling for NeuN and nestin and immunocytochemistry for Ki-67 in human dentate gyrus (DG) from a 57 years old female control (a-f) and a 75 years old male control (g-h) who were not on medication. From: Antidepressants increase neural progenitor cells in the human hippocampus.

(a) NeuN-immunoreactive (-IR) cells in the DG, hilus and CA regions of the hippocampus. (b) The subgranular zone (SGZ), granule cell layer (GCL) and Molecular layer (ML) are indicated; at higher magnification, the initial segments of the dendrites of the neurons of the hilus are clearly stained for NeuN (the same cells in the black box in a). (c) Nestin-IR cells (brown) along the SGZ of the DG exhibiting their characteristic multipolar appearance. Note one unipolar cell (arrow), which appears to have a higher level of differentiation, located within the GCL. Section is stained for Nissl with Cresyl Violet. (d) Differential interference contrast image of a nestin-IR cell, showing the immunostained perikarya and multiple processes, including one touching a blood vessel. (e) Double labeling of NeuN-IR granule cells (in black) and nestin-IR cells (in brown). Blood vessels are stained for nestin. (f) There is no co-labeling of Nestin and NeuN (the same cells in the black box in e). (g) Ki67-IR cells (nucleus in purple) in the GCL and SGZ of the DG. (k) Differential interference contrast image of the same cells in the black box in g. Four nuclei are labeled. After immunocytochemistry, sections were stained with eosin to label cytoplasm without interfering with the Ki-67 nuclear stain.

Maura Boldrini, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. ;34(11):2376-2389.

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