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1.
FIG. 2

FIG. 2. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 on structural injury of the intestine. Representative images of intestines from a vehicle-treated (top) and a GT3-treated mouse on day 3.5 after 8.5 Gy TBI. Original magnification of both images 20×.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
2.
FIG. 8

FIG. 8. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 and/or mevalonate on postirradiation vascular peroxynitrite formation. GT3 reduced radiation-induced peroxynitrite production in the abdominal aorta at 4 h (P = 0.004) and 3.5 days (P = 0.004) after TBI (abbreviations as in Fig. 1). This effect was reversed by co-treatment with mevalonate, indicating that it is dependent on HMG-CoA reductase inhibition.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
3.
FIG. 5

FIG. 5. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 on postirradiation bacterial translocation. Ten days after exposure to 9 Gy TBI, significant amounts of bacterial DNA were observed in the livers of vehicle-treated mice. There was a highly statistically significant reduction in bacterial translocation in GT3-treated mice (P = 0.002).

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
4.
FIG. 4

FIG. 4. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 and/or mevalonate on postirradiation crypt survival. Pretreatment with a single dose of GT3 significantly improved intestinal crypt survival (P = 0.002) (abbreviations as in Fig. 1). This effect was not reversed by co-administration of mevalonate. The measures of variability (SE) are plotted only in the upward direction to minimize the number of overlapping lines.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
5.
FIG. 7

FIG. 7. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 and/or mevalonate on spleen colony counts. Animals treated with GT3 and GT3 ± mevalonate showed increased numbers of spleen colonies compared to vehicle- and mevalonate-treated animals at 12 days after 8.5 Gy TBI (P = 0.0008; abbreviations as in Fig. 1). All spleens from GT3-treated animals exhibited countless (≫100) partly confluent colonies, and the number is thus arbitrarily set to 100.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
6.
FIG. 6

FIG. 6. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Relative plasma citrulline levels 3.5 days and 7 days after irradiation. There was a highly significant reduction in plasma L-citrulline levels at 3.5 days, but this effect was not attenuated by GT3 administration (abbreviations as in Fig. 1). At 7 days after irradiation, L-citrulline levels were back to baseline values in the vehicle- and mevalonate-treated animals, whereas in GT3-treated animals, L-citrulline levels exceeded baseline values (GT3 alone: P = 0.01; GT3 + mevalonate: P = 0.005).

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
7.
FIG. 1

FIG. 1. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 and/or mevalonate administration on overall survival. Panel A: Kaplan-Meier survival curve from mice exposed to 11 Gy TBI. GT3 significantly prolonged survival and reduced lethality (P = 0.001). This effect was not reversed by mevalonate. Panel B: Improvement of the median duration of postirradiation survival by GT3 in mice exposed to 11 Gy TBI (median survival time ± IQR). V: vehicle; M: mevalonate; GT3: γ-tocotrienol; GT3 + M: γ-tocotrienol + mevalonate.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
8.
FIG. 9

FIG. 9. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 and/or mevalonate on circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction 8.5 Gy TBI induced a significant decrease in circulating E-selectin (panel A), MMP9 (panel B), VCAM (panel C) and ICAM (panel D) levels. At 14 days, E-selectin (P = 0.006), MMP9 (P = 0.006) and VCAM (P = 0.02) levels approached baseline values in GT3-treated animals while they were still severely reduced in mice treated with vehicle and mevalonate alone. There was no difference in ICAM levels among the treatment groups.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.
9.
FIG. 3

FIG. 3. From: ?-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Injury and Reduces Vascular Oxidative Stress after Total-Body Irradiation by an HMG-CoA Reductase-Dependent Mechanism.

Effect of GT3 and/or mevalonate administration on mucosal surface area. TBI induced a reduction in mucosal surface area in all treatment groups (abbreviations as in Fig. 1). Administration of a single dose of GT3 24 h before irradiation significantly improved recovery of the intestinal mucosal surface area as measured from 7 days after irradiation on (P = 0.008). This effect was not reversed by mevalonate. The measures of variability (SE) are plotted only in the upward direction to minimize the number of overlapping lines.

Maaike Berbée, et al. Radiat Res. ;171(5):596-605.

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