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Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.

A simple cycle of life illustrates numerous points at which Oxt may affect behaviors and physiology to facilitate the propagation of the species.

Heon-Jin Lee, et al. Prog Neurobiol. ;88(2):127-151.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.

Social recognition by Oxtr WT and KO males, as examined with the two-trial social recognition task. Investigation times of stimulus females during Trial 1 were equal across genotypes, indicating no motivational or olfactory differences. During Trial 2, Oxtr WT males display remember the previous stimulus females, represented by significantly less time investigating those female from Trial 1 (“familiar”) as compared to new females (“novel”); *p < 0.05 by t-test between familiar and novel. In contrast, Oxtr KO males spend equal times investigating the “familiar” and “novel” females, indicating a reduced ability to remember the familiar female and impaired social recognition. Adapted from (Lee et al., 2008).

Heon-Jin Lee, et al. Prog Neurobiol. ;88(2):127-151.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.

The effects of treatment with saline, 10 mg/kg of amphetamine, 10 mg/kg of apomorphine, or 6 mg/kg of phencyclidine on the prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) percentage in Oxt WT (A) and KO (B) mice. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were main effects of drug treatment, but not genotype. Compared to saline, treatment with amphetamine, apomorphine, and phencyclidine all had an effect on PPI percentage and there was a prepulse intensity-dependent increase in PPI percentage across all groups. There was an interaction between drug and genotype. Specifically, in Oxt KO mice, treatment with phencyclidine resulted in impaired PPI compared to saline treatment in Oxt WT mice. From (Caldwell et al., 2009).

Heon-Jin Lee, et al. Prog Neurobiol. ;88(2):127-151.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.

Disruption of the Oxtr in mouse forebrain by Camk2a-driven Cre recombinase expression. Oxtr levels were examined by receptor binding in coronal sections from adult WT (A B, C), OxtrFB/FB (D, E, F), and Oxtr−/− (G, H, I) mice. Most areas in the forebrain of OxtrFB/FB mice show decreased levels of binding, with the notable exception of the medial amygdala (MA). Oxtr−/− mice show only background levels. Exposure was for 3 weeks to X-ray film (C). Abbreviations: Am, amygdala; AON, anterior olfactory nucleus; CP, caudate-putamen; Ctx, cerebral cortex; Hi, hippocampal formation; LS, lateral septum; MA, medial amygdala; OB, olfactory bulb; PC, piriform cortex; VP, ventral pallidum. Scale bar equals 0.5 cm. From (Lee et al., 2008).

Heon-Jin Lee, et al. Prog Neurobiol. ;88(2):127-151.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.

Schematic diagram of the oxytocin and vasopressin genes (large arrows), preprohormones (boxes), and neuropeptides (bottom). Their human chromosomal location is shown at the top. Both genes are composed of three exons shown as small blue arrows and separated by two introns (shown as dotted lines between the exons). The genes are located on the same chromosome but are transcribed in opposite directions and separated by an intergenic region (IGR). The IGR length varies across species. The preprohormones each contain a signal peptide (SP), a neuropeptide (Avp or Oxt), and a neurophysin (NP). In the case of Avp, a glycopeptide (GP) as well. Protein processing signals are represented by thick lines. Cysteine residues form a disulfide bond to create a cyclic six amino acid ring for both neuropeptides. Seven out of the nine amino acids are identical in the neuropeptides and two are different (red). Adapted and modified from (Caldwell et al., 2008).

Heon-Jin Lee, et al. Prog Neurobiol. ;88(2):127-151.

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