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Results: 4

Figure 1

Figure 1. Two examples of infantile hemangioma. From: Vasculogenesis in Infantile Hemangioma.

In panel A, one prominent lesion and two smaller lesions are seen. Multiple hemangiomas, as seen here, occur in 20% of cases. In panel B, a facial hemangioma with potential to affect the eye is shown.

Elisa Boscolo, et al. Angiogenesis. ;12(2):197-207.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Multipotent hemangioma-derived stem cells (HemSC) differentiate in vivo and in vitro into endothelium and adipocytes. From: Vasculogenesis in Infantile Hemangioma.

The cellular origin of pericytes in IH has not been established, as indicated by the dashed line in panels A and B. In panel B, we speculate that the pericytes surrounding the IH blood vessels may differentiate into adipocytes in the involuted phase.

Elisa Boscolo, et al. Angiogenesis. ;12(2):197-207.
Figure 4

Figure 4. VEGFR-1 regulation in endothelial cells. From: Vasculogenesis in Infantile Hemangioma.

Panel A, when ß1-integrin in endothelial cells is activated, it promotes NFAT translocation into the nucleus where it binds to the VEGFR-1 promoter to stimulate VEGFR-1 transcription. ß1-integrin-induced NFAT activation is inhibited when a complex with VEGFR-2 and TEM8 is formed. Mutations in TEM8 and VEGFR-2 found in HemECs enhance affinity between the complexed proteins. In panel B, a schematic shows HemEC with lower VEGFR-1 levels, due to enhanced complex formation and decreased ß1-integrin activity. This leads to increased VEGF-A availability and activation of VEGFR-2, resulting in endothelial proliferation.

Elisa Boscolo, et al. Angiogenesis. ;12(2):197-207.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Histology and cellular phenotyping in proliferating, involuting and involuted phases of IH. From: Vasculogenesis in Infantile Hemangioma.

Panels A-C, hematoxilin and eosin staining; Panels D-F, immunostaining for human CD31, an endothelial marker; Panel G, immunostaining for CD133, a human stem and progenitor cell marker CD133; Panel H, immunostaining for NG-2, a pericyte marker; Panel I, immunostaining for perilipin-A, an adipocyte marker that prominently encircles the lipid storage droplets in adipocytes. Scale bars are 100 μm. Panels G and H contributed by Arnaud Picard, M.D.

Elisa Boscolo, et al. Angiogenesis. ;12(2):197-207.

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