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Results: 3

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Population Encoding by Circadian Clock Neurons Organizes Circadian Behavior.

VIP knockout Per1∷GFP mice exhibit altered circadian behavior. Left to right: example VIP wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout mice (-/-) on the Per1∷GFP reporter background. (A) Double-plotted actograms illustrate circadian behavior in a 12L:12D light cycle (LD). CST indicates Central Standard Time. (B) Double-plotted actograms illustrate circadian behavior in constant darkness (DD). Black arrow represents the phase of activity onset on the first day in DD. (A, B) Black ticks represent activity in 5-minute bins; white background denotes lights-on; gray background denotes lights-off. (C) Percentage of total wheel-running activity during the light-phase in LD for VIP+/+ (N = 14), VIP+/- (N = 16) and VIP-/- (N = 16) mice. (D) Rhythmic power in constant darkness as measured by χ2 periodogram amplitude for VIP+/+ (N = 8), VIP+/- (N = 9) and VIP-/- (N = 8) mice. (E) Time of activity onset on the first day in constant darkness for VIP+/+ (N = 7), VIP+/- (N = 9) and VIP-/- (N = 8) mice. Error bars represent SEM; asterisks (*) represent significance at p < 0.05.

Christopher M Ciarleglio, et al. J Neurosci. ;29(6):1670-1676.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Population Encoding by Circadian Clock Neurons Organizes Circadian Behavior.

Correlation of SCN neuronal rhythms with behavioral characteristics. (A) Plot of % daytime wheel-running activity vs. neuronal phase variance for individual mice (N = 15) by VIP genotype maintained in LD. (B) Plot of rhythmic power vs. neuronal phase variance for individual mice (N = 18) by VIP genotype maintained in DD. (A, B) Closed circles represent VIP-/- mice, open circles represent VIP+/- mice and triangles represent VIP+/+ mice. Thick black line represents single order regression, and the thin black lines represent the 95% confidence interval. (C) Phase of SCN Per1∷GFP onset (10% rising phase) on the first day ex vivo from mice maintained in LD (black bars) and onset of behavioral activity on the first day in DD (gray bars). For number of animals, see Fig. 1E and Fig. 2F. (D) Plot of the percent of rhythmic neurons (2+ peaks) per SCN slice for mice maintained in LD (left) or in DD (right). LD: VIP+/+ (N = 5), VIP+/- (N = 5) and VIP-/- (N = 4); DD: VIP+/+ (N = 6), VIP+/- (N = 8) and VIP-/- (N = 7). Error bars represent SEM; asterisks (*) represent significance at p < 0.05.

Christopher M Ciarleglio, et al. J Neurosci. ;29(6):1670-1676.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Population Encoding by Circadian Clock Neurons Organizes Circadian Behavior.

Ex vivo circadian gene expression rhythms from SCN and clock neurons. Left to right: example ex vivo SCN Per1∷GFP imaging data from VIP wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout mice (-/-). (A) Representative relative fluorescence intensity plots of ex vivo SCN for each of the VIP genotypes from LD (left) and DD (right) over 90 hours. (B) Representative normalized relative fluorescence intensity plots of individual neurons over 90 hours ex vivo. (C) Rayleigh plots from LD (left) and DD (right). Blue arrowheads represent the 50% peak rising phases of individual rhythmic neurons from a representative mouse of a particular genotype. Red arrow indicates the mean phase vector of rhythmic neurons, where length is inversely proportional to the neuronal phase variance, and the direction indicates timing relative to the previous light cycle in LD or previous behavioral cycles in DD. For LD (left), numbers indicate projected ZT, where projected ZT 0-12 is represented with a yellow background and projected ZT 12-24(0) is represented with a gray background; for DD (right), numbers indicate CT, where CT 0-12 is represented with a light gray background and CT 12-24(0) is represented with a darker gray background. For the VIP-/- mouse in DD, in which CT could not be reliably assigned, the phases of neurons are plotted as time ex vivo. (D) Neuronal phase variance in SCN from VIP+/+ (N = 4), VIP+/- (N = 5) and VIP-/- (N = 4) mice maintained in LD. (E) Neuronal phase variance in SCN from VIP+/+ (N = 7), VIP+/- (N = 8) and VIP-/- (N = 7) mice maintained in DD. (F) SCN phase from VIP+/+ (N = 9), VIP+/- (N = 9) and VIP-/- (N = 6) mice previously maintained in LD. Error bars represent SEM; asterisks (*) represent significance at p < 0.05.

Christopher M Ciarleglio, et al. J Neurosci. ;29(6):1670-1676.

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