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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Spread of male-specific cost-free repressive mutations.. From: Life and Death of an Influential Passenger: Wolbachia and the Evolution of CI-Modifiers by Their Hosts.

This figure illustrates the two scenarios of the spread of a male-specific repressive mutation with Wolbachia either persisting (graph 1a) or going extinct (graph 1b). The graphs show the frequency of the four different classes: Dashed lines represent uninfected wild-types and dash-dot lines uninfected mutants while infected wild-types are depicted by dotted lines and infected mutants by solid lines. Penetrance levels were varied between e = 0.5 in subfigure 1a and e = 1 in subfigure 1b. Other parameters were t = 0.9, lCI = 1, f = 0, and c = 0.

Arnulf Koehncke, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4425.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Spread of costly male-specific repressive and cost-free female-specific enhancing mutations.. From: Life and Death of an Influential Passenger: Wolbachia and the Evolution of CI-Modifiers by Their Hosts.

Shown are typical dynamics for the spread of a male-specific repressive mutation with associated survival costs and Wolbachia going extinct (3a, insert enlarged for temporal clarity), or of a female-specific enhancing mutation increasing transmission rates without survival costs (3b). Dashed lines represent uninfected wild-types and dash-dot lines uninfected mutants, while infected wild-types are depicted by dotted lines and infected mutants by solid lines. Parameters were t = 0.9, e = 1, lCI = 1, f = 0, c = 0.05, and d = 0 in 3a and t = 0.9, e = 0, lCI = 0.5, f = 0, c = 0, and d = 0.05 in 3b.

Arnulf Koehncke, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4425.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Parameter regions of spread of costly male-specific repressive mutations and loss of Wolbachia.. From: Life and Death of an Influential Passenger: Wolbachia and the Evolution of CI-Modifiers by Their Hosts.

Shown are the parameter regions of a mutation's penetrance levels e and the level of CI lCI where a male-specific repressive mutation can spread in the population, and how this affects the persistence of Wolbachia. In 2a the survival cost was set to c = 0 and the mutation could always spread. In 2b and 2c the survival cost was set to c = 0.01 and c = 0.05, respectively. Dashed lines mark the critical penetrance ecrit. as approximated analytically in eq.30 of Appendix S1. Other parameters were t = 0.9, d = 0, and f = 0.

Arnulf Koehncke, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4425.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Altered Wolbachia-prevalence after spread of repressive and enhancing mutations.. From: Life and Death of an Influential Passenger: Wolbachia and the Evolution of CI-Modifiers by Their Hosts.

Shown in 4a is the reduced prevalence of Wolbachia after successful spread of a male-specific repressive mutation. Prevalence is shown as a function of the mutation's penetrance e for different values of lCI (as indicated in the graph) and with t = 0.95. Figure 4b shows the elevated prevalence of Wolbachia after fixation of a female-specific enhancing mutation as a function of the mutation's penetrance −d for different values of t (as indicated) with lCI = 0.5. All plots are based on the analytical results of eqs. 33&34 and eqs. 35&36 respectively, all in Appendix S1. In 4a, e was varied between e = 0 and e = ecrit. for each case. At higher values of e, the spread of the mutation reduces Wolbachia's prevalence to zero. In 4b, −d was varied between −d = 0 and , as larger values of −d all lead to teff. = 1. Other parameters were c = 0 and f = 0.

Arnulf Koehncke, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4425.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Parameter regions of spread of female-specific enhancing mutations.. From: Life and Death of an Influential Passenger: Wolbachia and the Evolution of CI-Modifiers by Their Hosts.

Shown are the parameter regions of the mutation's penetrance levels d and the level of CI lCI where a female-specific enhancing mutation that either increases transmission rates (5a and b) or increases the rescue function autonomously (5c) can spread in the population. Transmission rates were varied between t = 0.9 (5a and c) and t = 0.95 (5b). The survival cost c was varied as indicated, and the mutation could invade (and spread to fixation) above the depicted threshold lines. In 5a and c, costless mutations could always invade. Penetrance levels in 5a and b (where they take on negative values in order to increase transmission rates) were varied between −d = 0 and (where teff. becomes 1) and between 0 and 1 in subfigure c. The grey line in 5c depicts the critical penetrance level dcrit. above which Wolbachia is driven to extinction by the mutation's spread. Other parameters were e = 0 and f = 0.

Arnulf Koehncke, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4425.
6.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Cascades of male-specific repressive mutations and loss of Wolbachia.. From: Life and Death of an Influential Passenger: Wolbachia and the Evolution of CI-Modifiers by Their Hosts.

Shown in 6a are the increasing fitness advantages during a cascade of male-specific repressive mutations of equally small effect. The percentage fitness benefits of an additional mutation relative to the predominating genotype are plotted against the currently fixed number of n mutations. Fitness benefits are approximated using eqs. 27–28 of Appendix S1. Each dot represents one mutational step in the cascade; stars indicate the final stop of loss of Wolbachia where cumulative effects reach the threshold penetrance ethr.. Parameters are e = 0.025 and lCI = 0.4 with transmission rates varied as indicated. Shown in 6b are the critical numbers of male-specific repressive mutations ncrit. of equal effect that are necessary to drive Wolbachia to extinction in such a cascade of mutations. These thresholds were calculated analytically using eq.37 of Appendix S1 and are plotted as a function of lCI with t varied as indicated and e = 0.025. Other parameters for both graphs are c = 0 and f = 0.

Arnulf Koehncke, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4425.

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