Mean change (Least-squares means ± 95% confidence interval) on SF-36 measures across the control and exercise groups. The dose-response relations between exercise dose and change in QOL were evaluated with regression analysis to test for trends in QOL change across groups. Significant trends were found for all QOL scales (all p-values < 0.0001), with exercise dose being an independent predictor of change in PF, t(1) = 3.19, p=0.002; RP, t(1) = 2.62, p=0.009; GH, t(1) = 3.21, p=0.001; MH, t(1) = 2.03, p=0.044; RE, t(1) = 3.00, p=0.003; SF, t(1) = 4.17, p<0.0001; and VT, t(1) = 2.88, p=0.004; but not BP, t(1) = 1.31, p=0.192. Differences in QOL change across groups were tested by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with adjustment for pre-specified covariates (age, antidepressant use, BMI, employment status, ethnicity, marital status, and smoking status at baseline). Significant ANCOVAs (p < .05) were followed by pair-wise comparisons to test if the exercise groups differed significantly from the control group. The alpha level was set a 0.0167 (.05/3=0.0167) and all p-values were multiplied by three; hence, the following notation was used to depict statistical significance: *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. For significant comparisons, the LS mean differences (95% confidence intervals) between the 12 KKW and control group follow: PF 5.7 (1.2-10.2), RP 10.4 (1.3-19.5), GH 6.2 (2.1-10.4), MH 3.6 (0.2-7.1), RE 10.4 (2.3-18.4), SF 9.1 (4.1-14.2), and VT 7.1 (1.9-12.2). Similarly, significant LS mean differences (95% CI) between the 4 KKW and control group were: GH 3.9 (0.2-7.6), VT 5.2 (0.5-9.9), SF 4.9 (0.3-9.4), and MH 3.8 (0.7-6.9). The 8 KKW significantly improved SF compared to control 5.4 (0.4-10.4).