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Results: 4

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Cranberry Proanthocyanidins are Cytotoxic to Human Cancer Cells and Sensitize Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paraplatin.

Chemical structure of a representative tetramer (n = 4) proanthocyanidin (DP-4) with A-type linkage.

Ajay P. Singh, et al. Phytother Res. ;23(8):1066-1074.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Cranberry Proanthocyanidins are Cytotoxic to Human Cancer Cells and Sensitize Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paraplatin.

(A) MALDI-TOF spectra of the proanthocyanidin fraction in positive ion mode. (B) highly enlarged HPLC profile of PAC-1 used in this study. Peaks 1 to 3 correspond to trimers (DP-3), peaks 4 to 6 correspond to tetramers (DP-4), peak 7 to pentamers (DP-5), peak 8 to hexamers (DP-6), peak 9 to heptamers(DP-7), peak 10 to octamers (DP-8), peak 11 to nonamers (DP-9), peak 12 to decamers (DP-10), peaks 13, 14 and 15 correspond to PACs with DPs of 11, 12, and 13, respectively.

Ajay P. Singh, et al. Phytother Res. ;23(8):1066-1074.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Cranberry Proanthocyanidins are Cytotoxic to Human Cancer Cells and Sensitize Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paraplatin.

Effect of co-treatment of PAC-1 and Paraplatin on cell viability and cell proliferation and quantification of the uptake of PAC-1 in SKOV-3 in the presence or absence of paraplatin. A: SKOV-3 cells were pretreated with (0–150 μg/mL) for 3 h with PACs, followed by subcytotoxic doses of paraplatin (4.5 μg/mL). Cell viability was measured by MTS assay. B: SKOV-3 cells were pretreated with (0– 125 μg/mL) for 3 h with PACs, followed by subcytotoxic doses of paraplatin (4.5 μg/mL). The BrdU proliferation assay was used to measure inhibition of cell proliferation. Experiments were performed in triplicates; data are expressed as the mean of the triplicate determinations (X ± SD) in % cell proliferation of untreated cell. C: SKOV-3 cells were treated with PAC-1 (200 μg/mL) for 48 h and metabolites quantified by HPLC. D: SKOV-3 cells were pretreated with PAC-1 (200 μg/mL, 3 h) followed by subcytotoxic doses of paraplatin (4.5 μg/mL). Cells were incubated for a total of 48 h and proanthocyanidins were quantified by HPLC.

Ajay P. Singh, et al. Phytother Res. ;23(8):1066-1074.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Cranberry Proanthocyanidins are Cytotoxic to Human Cancer Cells and Sensitize Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells to Paraplatin.

Comparative cytotoxicities of proanthocyanidins in different human cancer and control cell lines. (A) Polyphenolic fractions isolated from cranberry were screened for their cytotoxic potential against SKOV-3 cells. PAC-1 (F-1) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity. (B) PAC-1 was screened against human SKOV-3 (ovarian cancer), PC-3 (prostate cancer), SMS-KCNR (neuroblastoma) cell lines and LF (lung fibroblasts). Cells were treated with various concentrations (0 to 1000 μg/mL) of PAC-1 and PAC-2 for 48 h. The MTS viability assay was used to measure viability. Experiments were performed in triplicates; data are expressed as the mean of the triplicate determinations (X ± SD) of a representative experiment in % cell viability of samples with untreated cells [100%]. (C) SKOV-3 cells treated with PAC-1 (0-top panel or 200 μg/mL-bottom panel) for 24 h before microscopic analysis by phase contrast (PC) or fluorescence analysis after chromatin staining using a DAPI stain. Cells were photographed with a fluorescence microscope (20× objective).

Ajay P. Singh, et al. Phytother Res. ;23(8):1066-1074.

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