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1.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Probiotics and meta-analyses. From: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS.

Based on the best available evidence, the Cochrane Database has published assessments of the strength of evidence for use of probiotics in gastrointestinal and atopy-related diseases. Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Michael H. Hsieh, et al. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. ;38(10):309-327.
2.
Figure 6

Figure 6. Probiotic-mediated modulation of innate immunity. From: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS.

Some probiotic strains promote TNF production by monocytes and are considered immunostimulatory (arrows representing two L. reuteri strains), whereas other strains, even within the same species, may inhibit TNF production by monocytes and are considered anti-inflammatory (arrows representing two L. reuteri strains). These probiotic effects may be exploited to alleviate inflammatory diseases as well as prevent and treat infections.

Michael H. Hsieh, et al. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. ;38(10):309-327.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Colonic microbial architecture: differential distribution of bacteria. From: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS.

Adapted from Swidsinki et al. (www.charite.de/arbmkl/einzelne_seiten_der_maus/0.htm; with permission). FISH staining of the colonic wall microbiota reveals discrete zones for different bacterial species. Yellow staining designates the B. fragilis-specific Bfra probe conjugated to Cy3 dye, red staining designates the E. rectale-specific Erec probe conjugated to Cy5 dye, and green staining designates the Eubacteria-specific Eub388 probe conjugated to FITC dye.

Michael H. Hsieh, et al. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. ;38(10):309-327.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Beneficial roles for probiotics in the mammalian intestine. From: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS.

Probiotics (purple rod-shaped cells) may secrete various factors (depicted by arrows) that confer beneficial effects on the host. These effects include the production of key nutrients, antimicrobial factors, immunomodulatory factors and other compounds with possible effects listed in this figure. Probiotics may co-exist and suppress bacterial pathogens and interact intimately with the intestinal epithelium and immune cells (depicted on right side of slide).

Michael H. Hsieh, et al. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. ;38(10):309-327.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Different bacterial colonization pattterns in the intestines (feces) in human infants. From: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS.

Adapted from Palmer et al. PLOS Biol 2007;5(7):e177. Upper panels show bacterial abundance by TaqMan real-time PCR with universal bacterial primers. Estimated rRNA gene copies per gram of feces (y-axis) are plotted as a function of days of life (x-axis). The lower panels show taxonomic groups with mean (normalized) relative abundance greater than 1%. The x-axis indicates days since birth and is shown on a log scale, and the y-axis shows estimated (normalized) relative abundance based on bacterial microarray data.

Michael H. Hsieh, et al. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. ;38(10):309-327.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. The human super-organism. From: THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS.

Adapted from Glausiusz, Discover Magazine, June 2007, as well as images courtesy of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control, and Wikipedia. This figure depicts different microbes and other organisms that have been intimately associated with humans as commensals or potential pathogens. The numbers correspond to images of organisms and approximate anatomic locations where these organisms may reside on the human body. 1. Trichophyton and Epidermophyton are filamentous, parasitic microbes that cause athlete’s foot. 2. Vaginal microbiota, mostly Lactobacillus species secrete lactic acid and other antimicrobial compounds that prevent pathogen overgrowth. 3. More than 500 species of bacteria, weighing approximately 3.3 pounds in the average human adult, live inside the gastrointestinal tract. 4. More than 100 strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) can infect humans, causing a variety of warts from the common wart to plantar and flat warts. 5. Pediculus humanus capitis, the head louse, may have co-evolved with recent H. sapiens. 6. Oral Streptococcus species form biofilms that may be 300–500 cells in thickness on the surfaces of unbrushed teeth. 7. Demodex mites inhabit the follicles of the eyelashes and infest about 20 percent of people under the age of 20. 8. After initial infection with the varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox), the virus remains dormant in nerve ganglia and may cause disease due to re-activation later in life. 9. Approximately 1/12 of the human genome consists of DNA from fossil viruses that infected human ancestors millions of years ago. 10. Prevalent bacterial genera on the human skin include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium.

Michael H. Hsieh, et al. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. ;38(10):309-327.

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