Results: 5

Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. From: Proteomic changes associated with diabetes in the BB-DP rat.

Overall metabolic summary of focus of the liver in the diabetic state. Yellow areas concern the conversion of energy into ATP; red arrows represent upregulated ATP hydrolysis reactions generating work.

D. Thor Johnson, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 March;296(3):E422-E432.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Proteomic changes associated with diabetes in the BB-DP rat.

Gluconeogenesis/glycolysis. Protein identifications as follows: serine hydratase (SH); glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI); triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI); phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PM); phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK); enolase 1α (EN); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); pyruvate carboxylase (PC); fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (F-1,6-B); malate dehydrogenase mitochondrial (mMD); malate dehydrogenasecytosolic (cMD); aspartate transaminase cytosolic (cAT); aspartate transaminase mitochondrial (mAT); glucose phophatase (GP); phosphoglucomutase 1(PGM); glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI); phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGM); pyruvate kinase M2 (PK); phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-3PD); aldolase B (FBPA); hexokinase (HK); phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1); alanine aminotransferase (AAT).

D. Thor Johnson, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 March;296(3):E422-E432.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Proteomic changes associated with diabetes in the BB-DP rat.

Urea cycle. Elements of the urea cycle isolated from diabetic and control liver. Symbol and protein identification: glutamate dehydrogenase I (GDH1); carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS); arginase I (Arg 1); ornithine aminotransferase (OAT); ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT); arginosuccinate synthase (ASS); arginosuccinate lyase (ASL). ROS metabolism. Elements of ROS metabolism. Symbol identification: glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1); Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) Cu superoxide dismutase (Cu-SOD); cytosolic peroxiredoxins 6,1,4 (Prx-6,1,4); mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx-5), catalase. Methionine cycle. Elements of the methionine cycle. Symbol indentification: methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT); betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT); glycine methyltransferase (GNMT); catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT); guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT); S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH); choline oxidoreductase (CO); betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD); electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF); sarcosine dehydrogenase (SaDH); dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMDH); serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT); tetrahydrofolate (THF).

D. Thor Johnson, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 March;296(3):E422-E432.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Proteomic changes associated with diabetes in the BB-DP rat.

Citric acid cycle. Proteins of the citric acid cycle detected in this screen. In all figures, proteins upregulated by ≥20% are denoted by a thick line, proteins downregulated by ≥20% by a dotted line, proteins within 20% in expression by a thin solid line. Gray line indicates that the protein was not detected. Symbol and protein identification: citrate synthase (CS); aconitase (AC); NAD+ isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH); 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-ODH); succinyl-CoA ligase (SCoAL); succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); fumerate hydratase (FH); malate dehydrogenase (MDH); hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT; known in the literature before 2006 as alcohol dehydrogenase) iron containing 1; succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSDH); aminobutyrate transaminase (ABT); glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT). Electron transport chain. Comparison of protein expression of diabetic vs. control in components of the electron transport chain. Several proteins were grouped into complexes as outlined below. Complex 1: NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1α subcomplex 9. Electron transfer flavoprotein: electron transfer flavoprotein-α; electron-transferring flavoprotein dehydrogenase. Complex 2: succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B. Complex 3: ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex core protein 2. Complex 4: cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide Va; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1; cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide Via. F1F0ATPase: ATP synthase β-chain; H+-ATP synthase-α; ATP synthase coupling factor 6; ATP synthase H+ transporting mitochondrial F1 complex-γ; ATP synthase B; ATP synthase subunit d; ATP synthase oligomycin sensitivity conferral protein. Others: ADP, ATP carrier protein (ANT); phosphate transport protein (PT). Fatty acid oxidaion. Symbol and protein identification: carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1); carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase long-chain specific (LCAD); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase medium-chain specific (MCAD); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short-chain specific (SCAD); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long-chain specific (VLCAD); hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCoAS); hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMGCoAL); 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (thiolase); 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DCoAR); Δ3,5-Δ2,4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase (DCoAI); 2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECo-AI); trifuctional enzyme (TFE); β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BHBH).

D. Thor Johnson, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 March;296(3):E422-E432.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Proteomic changes associated with diabetes in the BB-DP rat.

Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis of diabetic tissues. Overlay of diabetic vs. control tissue. A: liver. B: heart. C: skeletal muscle. Protein identifications follow. Liver: 1) aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; 2) sarcosine dehydrogenase; 3) dimethylglycine dehydrogenase; 4) serotransferrin precursor; 5) mitochondrial aconitase; 6) long-chain-fatty acid-CoA ligase; 7) urocanase; 8) glucokinase regulatory protein; 9) phosphoenolpyruvate caboxykinase; 10) succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein; 11); stress 70 protein; 12) protein disulfide-isomerase; 13) 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein; 14) protein disulfide isomerase A3; 15) pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L; 16) phosphoglucomutase 1; 17) carbamoyl-phosphate synthase II; 18) liver carboxylesterase 10; 19) serine protease inhibitor A3k; 20) glycerol kinase; 21) serine protease inhibitor A3L; 22) S-adenosylmethionine synthetase; 23) argininosuccinate lyase; 24) β-ureidopropionase; 25) cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase; 26) hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase; 27) fumarate hydratase; 28) argininosuccinate synthase; 29) glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1; 30) apolipoprotein A-IV; 31) regucalcin; 32) 3-oxo-5-β-steroid 4-dehydrogenase; 33) arginase I; 34) N-hydroxyarylamine sulfotransferase; 35) cytosolicmalate dehydrogenase; 36) estrogen sulfotransferase isoform 2; 37) glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit; 38) prohibitin; 39) proteasome activator complex subunit 2; 40) phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein; 41) Δ3;5-Δ2;4-dienoyl-CoA isomerase; 42) homogentisate oxygenase; 43) glycoprotein gC1qBP; 44) catechol O-methyltransferase, membrane-bound form; 45) major urinary protein; 46) pterin-4-α-carbinolamine dehydratase; 47) D-dopachrome tautomerase; 48) fatty acid-binding protein. Skeletal muscle: 1) glycogen phosphorylase, muscle form; 2) serotransferrin, splice isoform 2; 3) serum albumin; 4) tripartite motif-containing protein 72; 5) enolase 1α; 6) fumerase; 8) apolipoprotein A-IV; 9) apolipoprotein A-I; 10) atrial natriuretic factor; 11) ATP synthase delta chain. Heart: 1) LIM domain-binding protein 3; 2) creatine kinase; 3) ATP synthesis subunit β; 4) tripartite motif-containing protein 72; 5) α-enolase; 6) succinyl-CoAligase (ADP-forming)-β; 7) isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD]-α; 8) isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD]-α; 9) ATP synthase delta chain; 10) serum albumin.

D. Thor Johnson, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 March;296(3):E422-E432.

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