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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. 4HNE-modified autoantigens and epitope spreading in autoimmunity. From: Inhalation of Environmental Stressors & Chronic Inflammation: Autoimmunity and Neurodegeneration.

Experimental models of immunization with ALEs modified proteins have shown the induction of autoimmunity in mouse models [45]. A) antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages or dendritic cells present self peptides from 60 kD Ro or 60 kD HNE-Ro adducts to T cells, which in turn provide help to autoreactive B cells. Clonal expansion of B cells capable of binding to 60 kD Ro or 60 kD HNE Ro occurs. B) APC present 4HNE-modified self 60 kD Ro to T-cells that then provide help to a diversified B-cell response. See text for more details.

Sandra E. Gomez-Mejiba, et al. Mutat Res. ;674(1-2):62-72.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. The lung as a target and source of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. From: Inhalation of Environmental Stressors & Chronic Inflammation: Autoimmunity and Neurodegeneration.

Inhaled biological, chemical, or physical environmental stressors produce irritation, recruitment, and activation of inflammatory cells in the airways and lung parenchyma. Reactive oxygen species produced by activation of these inflammatory cells damage proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in the lung. Restoration mechanisms degrade modified macromolecules, which can reach the systemic circulation as single entities or as adducts (per example 4-HNE-modified proteins). Modified biomolecules, their degradation products and adducts of host proteins with oxidation products, inflammatory cytokines, bioactive lipids, and lipid peroxidation products can interact with cells in tissues away from the lung and alter cell physiology and metabolism depending on the presence of receptors and tissue accessibility. These modifications can elicit indirect oxidative damage and modification of tissue specific macromolecules, which can induce and or/exacerbate autoimmunity, neurodegenerative and other chronic inflammatory diseases, and aging.

Sandra E. Gomez-Mejiba, et al. Mutat Res. ;674(1-2):62-72.

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