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1.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. Differences in GMV between groups. From: Morphometric Spatial Patterns Differentiate Fragile X Syndrome, Typical Developing and Developmentally Delayed Boys of Ages One to Three.

a. Regions that show significant differences in GMV between FXS and controls. P=0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWE), extent threshold=200.
b. Adjusted GMVs are plotted to ensure that only one control group (TD or DD) is not driving the overall effect. Alphabets on x-axis correspond to ROI labels in Table 2. n.s.: P≥0.1, ~: P<0.1, *: P<0.05, **: P<0.01, ***: P<0.001. Error bars represent standard deviation.

Fumiko Hoeft, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;65(9):1087-1097.
2.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. Pattern classification results. From: Morphometric Spatial Patterns Differentiate Fragile X Syndrome, Typical Developing and Developmentally Delayed Boys of Ages One to Three.

a. Classification accuracy. SVM results classifying FXS and controls using all GM voxels (i), all GM voxels except caudate voxels (ii), and 116 brain regions (iii). To the right is SVM results classifying DD from TD using all GM voxels (iv), and FXS from TD in a subset of randomly selected FXS (N=18) to match sample-size of DD (v).
b. Whole-brain representation of pattern classification results from FXS vs. TD/DD using all GM voxels. Axial brain images of weight vectors from leave-one-out SVM for all voxels (top), and spatial patterns of most significant voxels when thresholded at P=0.05 (according to 2000 permutations) (bottom).

Fumiko Hoeft, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;65(9):1087-1097.
3.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. Covariation of regional brain volumes and IQ. From: Morphometric Spatial Patterns Differentiate Fragile X Syndrome, Typical Developing and Developmentally Delayed Boys of Ages One to Three.

GM and WM regions that show significant correlation with IQ (Mullen Composite Standard Score) in TD and DD groups (FXS group showed no significant correlation). P = 0.01 corrected. Controlled for age, scan-site and total GMV (for GM regions) / WMV (for WM regions). Statistical maps are overlaid on a representative single TD (for correlations in the TD group) or DD (for correlations in the DD group) subject’s segmented GM (for GM regions) or WM (for WM regions). Scaling bars represent T-values. Left side shows left hemispheres except when noted.

Fumiko Hoeft, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;65(9):1087-1097.
4.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. Regional WMV differences between groups. From: Morphometric Spatial Patterns Differentiate Fragile X Syndrome, Typical Developing and Developmentally Delayed Boys of Ages One to Three.

a. WM regions that show significantly greater and less volumes in FXS compared to TD and DD groups. P = 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWE), extent threshold = 200. Age, scan-site and total WMV are entered as nuisance variables. Statistical maps are overlaid on a representative single FXS (top) and TD (bottom) subject’s segmented white matter.
b. Brain volumes adjusted for age, scan-site and total WMV from regions in (a) are extracted and plotted to ensure that one of the control groups (TD or DD) is not driving the effect. Alphabets on x-axis correspond to ROI labels in Table 3. n.s.: P ≥ 0.10, ~*: P < 0.10, *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.001. †: Comparison between FXS and DD adjusted additionally for IQ.

Fumiko Hoeft, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;65(9):1087-1097.
5.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. Probabilistic maps of regional GMV differences between groups. From: Morphometric Spatial Patterns Differentiate Fragile X Syndrome, Typical Developing and Developmentally Delayed Boys of Ages One to Three.

GM regions that show significantly greater and less volumes in FXS compared to TD and DD groups was examined using leave-one out cross-validation analysis permuted 102 times. Scaling bars represent T-values. A value of 1 in a given voxel indicates that all permutations showed significant effects (at a threshold of P = 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWE), extent threshold = 200). Age, scan-site and total GMV are entered as nuisance variables. Statistical maps are overlaid on a custom GM template. Most regions showing a value of 1 indicate the consistency of results. Left hemisphere is shown on left-side.

Fumiko Hoeft, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;65(9):1087-1097.
6.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. Adjusted brain volumes for each group. From: Morphometric Spatial Patterns Differentiate Fragile X Syndrome, Typical Developing and Developmentally Delayed Boys of Ages One to Three.

Total gray matter volume (GMV), total white matter volume (WMV), total cererbro-spinal fluid (CSF) and total tissue volume (TTV: GMV+WMV) are adjusted for age and scan-site. Left and right caudate nuclei volumes (Lt CN, Rt CN), left and right amygdala volumes (Lt AMY, Rt AMY) and posterior vermis volume (Post Vermis) are adjusted for age, scan-site and TTV. Error bars represent standard deviation. FXS: fragile X syndrome group, TD: typically developing group, DD: developmentally delayed group, n.s. P ≥ 0.10, ~*: P < 0.10, *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.001.

Fumiko Hoeft, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;65(9):1087-1097.

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