Results: 5

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Diagram showing putative biological processes involved in lipid metabolism.. From: HIV Replication Enhances Production of Free Fatty Acids, Low Density Lipoproteins and Many Key Proteins Involved in Lipid Metabolism: A Proteomics Study.

Each circle represents proteins associated with the respective function/s. Proteins in red were downregulated post-HIV infection (Figure 3). All other proteins were either expressed exclusively in HIV infected cells (Figure 2) or upregulated after virus infection (Figure 3). Full names, abbreviations and accession numbers of each protein are listed in Tables 1&2.

Suraiya Rasheed, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(8):e3003.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Proteins modulated by HIV post-infection.. From: HIV Replication Enhances Production of Free Fatty Acids, Low Density Lipoproteins and Many Key Proteins Involved in Lipid Metabolism: A Proteomics Study.

Up-regulated proteins are APOB and LRP1 and downregulated proteins are ACBP, STIP1, LRP2, and PDIA3. X-axis = protein names (abbreviations according to SwissPROT). Each protein was detected in multiple gels. Y-Axis = average of normalized quantities and standard deviations for each protein detected in multiple gels. The line limits are +/− one standard deviation for the range of data points for each protein. Full protein names and Accession #s of each protein are provided in Tables 1 & 2.

Suraiya Rasheed, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(8):e3003.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Proteins detected exclusively in HIV-infected cells by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from multiple gels.. From: HIV Replication Enhances Production of Free Fatty Acids, Low Density Lipoproteins and Many Key Proteins Involved in Lipid Metabolism: A Proteomics Study.

These proteins were not detected in counterpart uninfected cells tested at multiple time points and various stages of cell growth. X-axis = protein names (abbreviations) are according to SwissPROT: Y-axis = average of normalized quantity and standard deviations for each protein expressed in multiple gels. The line limits are +/− one standard deviation for the range of data points for each protein. Full protein names and Accession #s of each protein are provided in Table 1.

Suraiya Rasheed, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(8):e3003.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Figure 5: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of HIV-infected and counterpart uninfected cells T-cells.. From: HIV Replication Enhances Production of Free Fatty Acids, Low Density Lipoproteins and Many Key Proteins Involved in Lipid Metabolism: A Proteomics Study.

Protein profiles were evaluated 48 hours after treatment with azidothymidine (AZT), or mock treatment with phosphate buffered saline. Figure 5A represents protein profile of uninfected T-cells and shows theexpression of Apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB) and the absence of HIV p24 antigen. Figure 5B represents the protein profile of HIV-infected T-cells and displays the presence of both APOB and p24 antigen. Figure 5C indicates that APOB is NOT inhibited by treatment of HIV-infected cells by AZT while the viral proteins are inhibited by the antiviral drug.

Suraiya Rasheed, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(8):e3003.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Protein-interaction pathways of proteins associated with various aspects of lipid metabolism.. From: HIV Replication Enhances Production of Free Fatty Acids, Low Density Lipoproteins and Many Key Proteins Involved in Lipid Metabolism: A Proteomics Study.

The functional significance of each protein was defined using Ingenuity bioinformatics platforms designed for Systems Analyses of genes and protein expressed in human health and disease. All proteins were uploaded into the Strategene Pathway Architect (SPA) program and protein-interaction pathways were constructed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Proteins identified by our present proteomics studies are shown with blue outlines; purple-colored proteins are enzymes and kinases and pink-colored (with blue outlines) are other significant proteins involved in the lipid metabolism. Lines connecting proteins indicate molecular networks of interactions. The greater the number of lines originating from a protein, the more significant the molecular interactions of that protein with other protein/s. Note the extensive networks of interactions between all proteins identified in the present study (blue circles), particularly those of APOB and APOA-1. Full protein names, abbreviations and accession numbers of each protein are listed in Tables 1&2.

Suraiya Rasheed, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(8):e3003.

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