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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

DHA and exercise affect pro-BDNF and mature BDNF levels in the hippocampus of rats. (A) DHA increased pro-BDNF, which was boosted by exercise. The values were converted to percent of RD-Sed group (mean ± SEM). *, P < 0.05. (B) DHA also increased mature BDNF, whereas exercise plus DHA led to greater elevation of mature BDNF. The mature BDNF and pro-BDNF in DHA-Exc rats were significantly higher than that in DHA-Sed rats. The values were converted to percent of RD-Sed group (mean ± SEM). *, P < 0.05.

Aiguo Wu, et al. Neuroscience. ;155(3):751-759.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

DHA and exercise increase phosphorylated synapsin I and CREB response in the hippocampus. (A) Results show that DHA increased the ratio p-Syn I/t-Syn I, which was enhanced by exercise. This ratio in DHA-Exc rats was significantly higher than that in DHA-Sed rats. (B) Results show that DHA elevated p-CREB/t-CREB, which also was enhanced by exercise. The p-CREB/t-CREB ratio in DHA-Exc rats was significantly higher than that in DHA-Sed rats. The values were expressed as mean ± SEM. *, P < 0.05.

Aiguo Wu, et al. Neuroscience. ;155(3):751-759.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

DHA and exercise increase phosphorylated Akt and CaMKII response in the hippocampus. (A) Results show that DHA elevated the ratio p-Akt/t-Akt, which was enhanced by exercise. (B) Results show that DHA elevated p-CaMKII/t-CaMKII, and this was enhanced by exercise. The values were expressed as mean ± SEM. *, P < 0.05. (C) There is a significant positive correlation between p-Akt and m-BDNF for all groups: RD-Sed, DHA-Sed, RD-Exc, and DHA-Exc (r = 0.82, p < 0.05).

Aiguo Wu, et al. Neuroscience. ;155(3):751-759.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

Measurement of oxidized protein levels in rat hippocampus by western blot analysis of DNPH-derivatized carbonyl groups on oxidized proteins. DHA reduced oxidized protein levels, while exercise plus DHA led to greater reduction of oxidized protein levels (72%). The oxidized protein levels in DHA-Exc rats were significantly lower than that in DHA-Sed rats. The values were converted to percent of RD-Sed group (mean ± SEM). *, P < 0.05.

Aiguo Wu, et al. Neuroscience. ;155(3):751-759.
5.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

Possible mechanisms by which DHA dietary supplementation and exercise can affect synaptic plasticity and cognition. Both the DHA diet and exercise can increase the levels of BDNF acting on TrkB receptor signaling and resulting in the ctivation of synapsin I and CREB. A32.045ctivated synapsin I and CREB may contribute to enhance cognitive function. The Akt and CaMKII signaling systems can play a crucial intermediate role on the effects of DHA dietary supplementation and exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function.

Aiguo Wu, et al. Neuroscience. ;155(3):751-759.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

DHA and exercise improve learning disability in rats. Learning performance was scored as average of escape latencies to locate the platform in the Morris water maze. The results demonstrated that DHA-enriched diet-fed rats perform better with lower escape latency (DHA-Sed) (21.4±3.4 s, 17.4.4±1.8 s, 13.6±2.0 s) than the rats-fed regular diet (RD-Sed) (34.6±4.5 s, 29.6±3.3 s, 21.7±2.5 s) while searching for the platform at days 3,4,5 of cognitive testing (A). Furthermore, exercise can boost the effect of DHA with much less latency (DHA-Exc) (16.3±4.0 s, 11.3±2.4 s, 8.8±1.0 s) to find the platform compared to DHA-enriched diet-fed rats (DHA-Sed) or exercised rats fed regular diets (19.0±2.4 s, 14.0±2.6 s, 11.8±2.0 s) at days 3,4,5 of cognitive testing (A). (B) The significant difference between these groups at day 5 was shown. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.

Aiguo Wu, et al. Neuroscience. ;155(3):751-759.

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