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Results: 6

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Rapid Method for Detection of Mutations in the Nucleophosmin Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Melting troughs (−d(F1)/dT versus temperature) from the types A, B, D and URMC mutations in exon 12 of the NPM1 gene. The mutant melting troughs are labeled in the figure, as well as the normal and no DNA template controls.

Todd S. Laughlin, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2008 July;10(4):338-345.
2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Rapid Method for Detection of Mutations in the Nucleophosmin Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Example of the fragment analysis method used for validation of the NBQ assay. The figure shows a result from a specimen positive for an NPM1 mutation (Mutant, right panel) and a specimen with a normal sequence in this region (Normal, left panel). The double peaks are likely due to variable non-templated A addition. The y axis is fluorescence intensity in arbitrary units, and the x axis is the size of the fragment in bp.

Todd S. Laughlin, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2008 July;10(4):338-345.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Rapid Method for Detection of Mutations in the Nucleophosmin Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Example of the heteroduplex method used for validation of the NBQ assay. The figure is a photograph of a stained polyacrylamide gel showing results from a series of specimens, one of which is positive for an NPM1 mutation, indicated by a + above the lane. The white arrowhead on the gel photograph points toward the heteroduplex band. The specimens with no evidence for mutation are indicated by a − above the lane. The M lane contains the molecular weight markers (MspI digest of pUC18 plasmid DNA). The 163-bp amplicon produced by the PCR is indicated in the figure. The approximately 480-bp band in all of the lanes is of unknown origin.

Todd S. Laughlin, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2008 July;10(4):338-345.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Rapid Method for Detection of Mutations in the Nucleophosmin Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Sequence electropherograms showing the most common NPM1 mutation (type A, c.860_863dupTCTG) and the mutation discovered at the URMC (c.864_865delGCinsCTGGCG), as labeled in the figure. The upper panel is a normal sequence for comparison. The sequencing reactions were done using the downstream PCR primer. The reverse complements are shown. The panel for each mutation shows the sequence after the PCR was done in the presence (+clamp) or absence (−clamp) of a LNA PCR clamp, as labeled on the left side of the figure. The mutated nucleotides are underlined in the sequence interpretation between the +clamp and −clamp electropherograms. In the absence of the clamp, the sequence of the mutation can be determined from the overlapping normal and mutant signals by subtracting the normal base at each position. The clamp is used to inhibit amplification of the normal. Even though a bit of the normal sequence can still be seen in the +clamp electropherograms, the sequence of the mutation can be deciphered more easily because the normal sequence is much less intense.

Todd S. Laughlin, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2008 July;10(4):338-345.
5.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Rapid Method for Detection of Mutations in the Nucleophosmin Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Analysis of NPM1 mutation c.869_873delGGAGGinsTGTTTTCTC. A: Melting trough (−d(F1)/dT versus temperature) from c.869_873delGGAGGinsTGTTTTCTC compared with a type A mutation and a normal control. The mutant melting peaks are labeled in the figure, as well as the normal and no DNA template controls. The melting trough for the c.869_873delGGAGGinsTGTTTTCTC mutation is labeled with an asterisk. B: The mutant amplicons were removed from the LightCycler capillaries and sequenced using the downstream PCR primer. The reverse complement sequence trace is shown for the c.869_873delGGAGGinsTGTTTTCTC mutation with the overlapping normal sequence at a lower intensity due to the PCR clamp. The sequence interpretation of the mutant and normal DNA is above the trace, in upper and lower case, respectively, as labeled in the figure. The nucleotides inserted in the mutant and deleted from the normal are underlined. The sequence of the 3′ part of the probe is above the mutant sequence in a shaded box to show the single mismatched base between the probe and mutant amplicon.

Todd S. Laughlin, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2008 July;10(4):338-345.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Rapid Method for Detection of Mutations in the Nucleophosmin Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Graph of −d(F1)/dT versus temperature showing that the use of a LNA PCR clamp enhances the sensitivity of the NBQ assay. The sensitivity control was prepared by mixing DNA from a diagnostic AML patient specimen with a type B mutation and normal DNA in a 1:10 ratio. The 10% mutant and normal templates were amplified with or without the LNA PCR clamp as indicated. Both no-template controls are also shown. The direction of change in fluorescence intensity when the quenched probe dissociates from the amplicon (increase) is the opposite of that seen when using a dual probe fluorescence resonance energy transfer system to generate the fluorescent signal. For this reason we see a trough, or inverted peak, when using the LightCycler software. The higher Tm trough is from the normal sequence that is fully base-paired with the probe, and the lower Tm trough is due to the mismatched mutant sequence.

Todd S. Laughlin, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2008 July;10(4):338-345.

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