Results: 5

1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa.

GATA-4, GATA-6, and Ihh protein expression in neoplastic gastrointestinal mucosa. GATA-4, GATA-6, and Ihh are strongly expressed in intestinal metaplasia of the stomach (A, A', and A", respectively). The insets in A, A' and A" represent magnifications of cardiac glands. GATA-4 and GATA-6 are strongly expressed in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (B and B', respectively) in contrast to no or little expression of Ihh (B"). GATA-4 is detected neither in colon adenomas (C) nor carcinomas (D). The expressions of GATA-6 and Ihh are weak in adenomas, but enhanced in high grade dysplasias (C' and C" with insets). Little GATA-6 is found in the carcinoma tissue (D'). Ihh is not present in colon carcinoma (D"). Scale bar = 50 μm.

Hanna Haveri, et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:9-9.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa.

GATA-4, GATA-6, and Ihh protein expression in normal gastrointestinal mucosa. Brown nuclear staining indicates positivity for GATA-4 and GATA-6, and brown cytoplasmic color positivity for Ihh. In contrast to GATA-4 (A), GATA-6 (B) and Ihh (C) are strongly expressed at the bottom of the gastric glands (A, B, and C with insets). In the duodenum (D and E), both GATA-4 and GATA-6 are abundant in the villus enterocytes (D and E). In the ileum (G and H) and colon (J and K), GATA-4 is undetectable (G and J), whereas GATA-6 is abundant in the enterocytes, especially in the crypts (H and K). Some GATA-6 positivity is detected also in the lamina propria. Ihh expression is intense in intraepithelial neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine. Positivity can also be seen in some inflammatory cells of lamina propria, though non-specific absorption by plasma cells cannot be ruled out (F and I, arrowheads). In the colon, the enterocytes and the superficial compartments of the lamina propria are weakly positive for Ihh (L, arrowheads). Scale bars: Black = 200 μm and yellow = 25 μm. Abbreviations: STO = stomach, DUO = duodenum, ILE = ileum, COL = colon.

Hanna Haveri, et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:9-9.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa.

Identification of different cell types expressing GATA-4 and GATA-6 proteins in normal gastrointestinal mucosa. Staining for chromogranin A (ChrA) (blue-greyish cytoplasmic staining in A, A', C, C', F, and F') was used to detect neuroendocrine cells and staining for H+/K+-ATPase α (HK) (blue-greyish cytoplasmic staining in B and B' to detect parietal cells. The samples were double-stained for GATA-4 (G4) or GATA-6 (G6) (brown nuclear staining). The GATA proteins are not expressed in the neuroendocrine cells of the stomach, duodenum, or colon (A, A', C, C', F and F' respectively; arrowheads). GATA-4 is detected in the H+/K+-ATPase α presenting parietal cells (B). GATA-6 is positive in approximately two thirds of the parietal cells positive for H+/K+-ATPase α (B', arrowheads). Some duodenal goblet cells, stained deep blue by the Alcian blue method (Alc) (D'), and most Paneth cells are positive for GATA-6 (E', arrowhead) showing no immunoreactivity for GATA-4 (D and E, arrowheads). Scale bar = 50 μm.

Hanna Haveri, et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:9-9.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa.

GATA-4 and GATA-6 mRNA expression in normal gastrointestinal mucosa. Both bright and dark field in situ hybridization views are shown. In the stomach (A, A', B, and B'), GATA-4 mRNA expression is strongest in the middle and superficial layers (A-A'), while GATA-6 mRNA expression is most abundant in the basal two thirds of the mucosa (B-B'). In the duodenum, the enterocytes lining the villi are strongly positive for GATA-4 (C-C'), whereas the GATA-6 signal is more diffuse (D and D'). GATA-4 is no longer detected in the ileum (E and E') and colon (G and G'); the bright lining on the surface of the mucosa is due to tissue autofluorescence (E-E' and G-G'). In contrast, GATA-6 expression is prominent both in the small (D, D', F, and F') and large intestine (H and H') presenting positivity in the surface and crypt enterocytes, and the cells of the lamina propria (D-D', F-F', and H-H'). Scale bar = 50 μm. Abbreviations: STO = stomach, DUO = duodenum, ILE = ileum, COL = colon.

Hanna Haveri, et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:9-9.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa.

The expression of GATA-4, GATA-6, and Ihh in gastrointestinal mucosa in a) longitudinal and b) crypt-villus axes. A summary based on immunohistochemical results: (a) GATA-4 expression diminishes towards the distal end, whereas GATA-6 expression shows only little reduction in the longitudinal axis. Ihh is present very modestly along the gastrointestinal tract, except for the strong expression in the stomach. The expression patterns are based on the number of positive cells detected and the intensity of staining: – no expression, + individual positive cells or small areas with low expression, ++ patches of moderate expression, +++ large areas of moderate or strong expression, ND not detected. (b) GATA-4, GATA-6, and Ihh expression are presented in columns divided into three mucosal layers: surface layer (Sur), middle layer (Mid) and base (Bas). Each section of the GI tract is represented (STO = stomach, DUO = duodenum, ILE = ileum, COL = colon). The intensity of the color demonstrates the intensity of expression along the crypt villus-axis. White depicts undetectable expression.

Hanna Haveri, et al. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:9-9.

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