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Results: 4

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: IGF2: Epigenetic regulation and role in development and disease.

(A) Model of imprinted regulation at the Igf2-H19 locus. Adapted from [25]. (B) Model of allele-specific repression in X chromosome inactivation by CTCF. Adapted from [26–28]. DMR: differentially methylated region. Lollipops: methylated CpGs. Xi and Xa: inactive and active X chromosomes, respectively.

Wendy Chao, et al. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. ;19(2):111-120.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: IGF2: Epigenetic regulation and role in development and disease.

(A) Normal and (B) BWS gene expression patterns on chromosome 11p15.5. Arrows represent active genes. Lollipops: methylated CpGs. Red octagon: CTCF. Asterisks: point mutations. Filled triangles: translocation breakpoints. Open triangles: deletions. Adapted from [16, 59, 60].

Wendy Chao, et al. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. ;19(2):111-120.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: IGF2: Epigenetic regulation and role in development and disease.

The Shh signaling pathway. A) In the absence of signal, the receptor patched (Ptc) is complexed with smoothened (Smo), and Gli exists in a truncated form that acts as a transcriptional repressor [99, 100]. B) When bound by Shh, Ptc releases Smo, which signals to produce a full-length Gli activator protein. Gli target genes include Gli, Ptc, and genes involved in proliferation and morphogenesis.

Wendy Chao, et al. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. ;19(2):111-120.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: IGF2: Epigenetic regulation and role in development and disease.

Overview of the insulin/IGF system. IR exists in two isoforms: IR-A and IR-B. IR-B is responsible for the classic metabolic responses induced by insulin, and also binds IGF1 and IGF2 with low and intermediate affinity, respectively. IR-A has high affinity for insulin and IGF2, and binds IGF1 with low affinity. IGF1R binds the IGFs to stimulate anabolic activity, and also binds insulin at high concentrations. IR-A/IGF1R heterodimers bind insulin and IGFs with similar affinity, whereas IR-B/IGF1R heterodimers bind IGF1 exclusively. IGF2R exclusively binds IGF2 and targets it for degradation. Adapted from [47] and [46].

Wendy Chao, et al. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. ;19(2):111-120.

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