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Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Rhoptries: an arsenal of secreted virulence factors.

Summary of two major ROP effectors in Toxoplasma. A) ROP18 is secreted into the host cell at the time of invasion and is subsequently targeted to the parasite-containing vacuole. Expression of the type I allele confers increased growth and virulence [,]. B) ROP16 is released into the host cell but traffics to the host cell nucleus. The allele shared by types I and III induce prolonged phosphorylation of STAT3, a negative regulator of Th1 immunity []. Both proteins have an N-terminal signal peptide and conserved S/T kinase domain.

Peter J. Bradley, et al. Curr Opin Microbiol. ;10(6):582-587.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Rhoptries: an arsenal of secreted virulence factors.

Secretion of rhoptry proteins during host cell invasion. A) Diagram showing rhoptry secretion during invasion. The rhoptry neck proteins (RON2/4/5, red) are released into the moving junction where they likely aid in invasion and the filtering of host transmembrane proteins from the nascent vacuole. The rhoptry body proteins (ROPs, green) are initially released into the host cell where they can then be targeted to the host nucleus or to the cytoplasmic face of the vacuole. ROPs are also released into the vacuole during invasion. B) Immuno-EM showing ROP1 (immunogold label) released into the cytosol during invasion (used with permission []). Tg = parasite; R, rhoptry; PV, parasite-containing vacuole, arrows indicate the limit of the vacuole membrane, * denote satellite vesicles that also contain ROP1 (i.e. evacuoles). Scale bar = 250 nm. C) Immunofluorescence staining of ROP18 (green) and ROP1 (red) surrounding nascent parasite-containing vacuoles and in evacuoles within the host cell cytosol following invasion (used with permission []). D, E) Targeting of the ROP phosphatase PP2C-hn to the host nucleus following secretion (phase contrast and immunofluorescence).

Peter J. Bradley, et al. Curr Opin Microbiol. ;10(6):582-587.

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