Figure 1

Figure 1. Intracellular and Extracellular Negative Regulatory Circuits. From: How and Why Does a Fly Turn Its Immune System Off?.

Immune activation by peptidoglycan stimulates the Toll and imd signaling pathways, inducing the translocation of the transcription factors Dorsal, Dif, and Relish into the nucleus (left panel). This activates an immediate transcriptional response to infection. This response can be attenuated by cell-autonomous intracellular signals (right panel) or cell–non-autonomous extracellular signals (bottom panel). All negative regulatory circuits are highlighted in red. Note that the Toll and imd pathways are shown in a simplified form and not all of the components are listed.

David S Schneider. PLoS Biol. 2007 September;5(9):e247.

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