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Results: 3

1.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Enhancement of sleep stability with Tai Chi exercise in chronic heart failure: Preliminary findings using an ECG-based spectrogram method.

Change in high-frequency (stable) cardiopulmonary coupling. Individual sleep stability measures of ECG-derived high-frequency cardiopulmonary coupling (as a percentage of estimated total sleep time [ETST] with non-cyclic alternating pattern) are shown at baseline and 12 weeks. The means (┬▒standard deviation) are shown in bold. At 12 weeks, patients in the Tai Chi group showed significantly increased time in stable sleep as compared to the usual care group (p = 0.04).

Gloria Y. Yeh, et al. Sleep Med. ;9(5):527-536.
2.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Enhancement of sleep stability with Tai Chi exercise in chronic heart failure: Preliminary findings using an ECG-based spectrogram method.

Change in low-frequency (unstable) cardiopulmonary coupling. Individual measures of ECG-derived low-frequency cardiopulmonary coupling (as a percentage of estimated total sleep time [ETST] with cyclic alternating pattern) are shown at baseline and 12 weeks. The means (┬▒standard deviation) are shown in bold. At 12 weeks, patients in the Tai Chi group showed significantly decreased time in unstable sleep compared to the usual care group (p < 0.01).

Gloria Y. Yeh, et al. Sleep Med. ;9(5):527-536.
3.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Enhancement of sleep stability with Tai Chi exercise in chronic heart failure: Preliminary findings using an ECG-based spectrogram method.

Effect of Tai Chi on the sleep spectrogram. The upper panel of the figure (a) shows the ECG-derived sleep spectrogram at baseline for a single patient. Note high-frequency (stable sleep state) and low-frequency (unstable sleep state) cardiopulmonary coupling and spontaneous switching between states. The lower panel (b) demonstrates an increase in high-frequency coupling following the Tai Chi exposure. This change is evident across the night, and is thus distinctly different from the type of information that can be obtained from standard sleep scoring approaches. Specifically, slow-wave (delta) sleep is an increasingly small percentage of total sleep time in older adults and would thus be less useful in this assessment. In each figure, C, cyclic alternating pattern; LFC, low-frequency coupling; NC, non-cyclic alternating pattern; HFC, high-frequency coupling; W/R, wake or REM sleep, all derived from a single channel of ECG [5]. As polysomnographic data were not available, the sleep period was defined as the 6 nighttime hours of the 24 h period with the lowest mean heart rate.

Gloria Y. Yeh, et al. Sleep Med. ;9(5):527-536.

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