Results: 5

1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Epidemic Weekly Lead or Lag Cross-Correlation during the 2003–2004 Influenza A/Fujian Season in New York City. From: Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City.

Excess fever and respiratory ED visits and P&I hospitalizations and deaths were correlated against influenza isolates during the 33 wk centered on peak isolates. Top, maximum cross-correlation values for ED visits and hospitalizations coincided with influenza isolates (no lag) with ED visits leading hospitalizations, by less than 1 wk. Maximum correlation values for P&I deaths lagged isolates by 2 wk. Middle, maximum correlation values for 2–4 y, 5–12 y, and 13–17 y ED visits led isolates by 1 wk, < 2 y, 18–39 y, and 40–64 y visits had no lag, and ≥ 65 y visits lagged isolates by 1 wk. Bottom, maximum cross-correlation values for < 65 y P&I hospitalizations had no lag, for ≥ 65 y hospitalizations and < 65 y P&I deaths had a 1 wk lag, and for ≥ 65 y P&I deaths had a 3 wk lag.

Donald R Olson, et al. PLoS Med. 2007 August;4(8):e247.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Weekly P&I Hospitalizations and All-Cause and P&I Deaths in New York City. From: Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City.

Observed P&I hospitalizations by age group from 1998–1999 to 2004–2005, and deaths for all ages from 1998–1999 to 2003–2004, are shown as black lines. Seasonally expected Serfling baseline levels are shown as red lines, and two-standard-deviation thresholds are shown as dashed lines. Catastrophic event deaths were removed from the data, and heat-wave period deaths were censored from the Serfling analysis. Observed P&I deaths during the 1999–2000 season were low due to a changeover from ICD-9 to ICD-10 coding. Codes in top graph: A/H3-SY, influenza A(H3N2) Sydney; B/VI, influenza B/Victoria; A/H1, either A(H1N1) New Caledonia or A(H1N2) Wisconsin; A/H3-FU, influenza A(H3N2) Fujian; B/YA, influenza B/Yamagata; and A/H3-CA, influenza A(H3N2) California.

Donald R Olson, et al. PLoS Med. 2007 August;4(8):e247.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Weekly Age-Specific Fever and Respiratory ED Visits in New York City during the 2001–2002 to 2005–2006 Seasons. From: Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City.

Observed fever and respiratory ED visits by age group are shown as black lines, and seasonally expected Serfling baseline visits are as red lines. Dashed lines represent model estimates plus two standard deviations. Shaded areas represent influenza-attributable excess ED visits by type A (blue) or B (red). Vertical lines indicate the first week of continuous influenza isolate reporting. Codes in top graph: A/H3-SY, influenza A(H3N2) Sydney; B/VI, influenza B/Victoria; A/H1, either A(H1N1) New Caledonia or A(H1N2) Wisconsin; A/H3-FU, influenza A(H3N2) Fujian; B/YA, influenza B/Yamagata; and A/H3-CA, influenza A(H3N2) California.

Donald R Olson, et al. PLoS Med. 2007 August;4(8):e247.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Weekly Influenza Isolates and ED Fever and Respiratory and ILI Visits in New York City during the 2001–2002 to 2005–2006 Seasons. From: Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City.

Dates are CDC year and week ending Saturday. Top graph, isolates by influenza type are from WHO collaborating laboratories, with subtype and strain designation based on predominant regional and national antigenic lineage: A/H3-SY, predominant circulating A(H3N2) Sydney-lineage viruses; B/VI, predominant circulating B/Victoria-lineage; A/H1, either A(H1N1) New Caledonia- or A(H1N2) Wisconsin-lineage; A/H3-FU, A(H3N2) Fujian-lineage; B/YA, B/Yamagata-lineage; and A/H3-CA, A(H3N2) California-lineage. Middle and bottom graphs, observed fever and respiratory syndrome (middle) and ILI syndrome (bottom) ED visits are shown as black lines, and seasonally expected Serfling baseline visits as red lines. Dashed lines represent epidemic thresholds as model estimates plus two standard deviations. Shaded areas represent estimated influenza-attributable excess ED visits: blue areas correspond to periods of increasing and dominant influenza A circulation and red areas to influenza B. Vertical lines indicate the first week of continuous influenza isolate reporting each season.

Donald R Olson, et al. PLoS Med. 2007 August;4(8):e247.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Observed Fever and Respiratory ED Visit Surface Plots by Age Group in New York City during the 2001–2002 to 2005–2006 Influenza Seasons. From: Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City.

Each season is shown from early September through mid-June by CDC week and year. Weeks of predominant influenza A (blue bar) or B (red bar) isolate surveillance during the study period, retrospectively identified predominant RSV hospitalizations through 2005 (gray bar), and dominant tree pollen periods for 2005 and 2006 (green bar) are shown above each season. Weekly ED visits by age group were detrended and normalized: age-specific intensity is shown as a color gradient interpolated between data points, with observed visits ranging from 2 to >4 times mean noninfluenza levels during peak epidemic weeks, and 0.25 to 1.25 during nonepidemic periods. Visits were increased across all age groups during periods of influenza A/H3N2 predominance, and were most markedly increased during the 2003–2004 and 2004–2005 A/Fujian-lineage epidemics. Visit increases during periods of influenza A/H1 and B predominance impacted preschool (2–4 y) and school-aged (5–17 y) children, and were most dramatically elevated during the B/Victoria-lineage reemergence in early 2002. The autumn and early-winter predominance of RSV preceded influenza in 2001, 2002, and 2005, and coincided with increased visits in the < 2 y and 2–4 y age groups. Visits were notably increased among school-aged children and working-aged adults during the dominant tree pollen period in 2006. RSV hospitalization data were not available for 2006 (*), and viral influenza surveillance reporting was incomplete during weeks 12 to 16, 2006 (*).

Donald R Olson, et al. PLoS Med. 2007 August;4(8):e247.

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