Results: 4

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Representation and Integration of Auditory and Visual Stimuli in the Primate Ventral Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Summary of auditory afferents to the prefrontal cortex. A cascade of increasingly larger projections targets prefrontal cortex (Romanski, Bates, Goldman-Rakic 1999) with light projections (dotted arrows) originating in early auditory belt cortex and heavier projections from parabelt and anterior temporal lobe regions (heavier arrows). The projections are topographic with caudal auditory cortex projecting to DLPFC (gray auditory areas and arrows) and rostral auditory cortex projecting more strongly to anterior and ventral PFC (black auditory areas and arrows) (Romanski, Tian, et al. 1999).

Lizabeth M. Romanski. Cereb Cortex. ;17(Suppl 1):i61-i69.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Representation and Integration of Auditory and Visual Stimuli in the Primate Ventral Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

A schematic of the macaque brain is shown depicting the flow of auditory and visual information through the brain to its ultimate destination in PFC. Regions of the prefrontal cortex are color coded to match those of areas, that project to it. The DLPFC (shown in blue and green) suggested to be essential in spatial working memory receives visual afferents from parietal cortex areas 7a, 7b, and 7ip (shown in blue), which carry visuospatial information, whereas caudal auditory association cortex (green) projects to caudal and dorsal PFC areas 46, 8a, and 8b. VLPFC (orange and yellow areas 12/47 and 45) receive afferents from inferotemporal cortex (orange) carrying information about object features and auditory information from anterior auditory association cortex (yellow). The overlap of auditory and visual domains in VLPFC is indicative of later findings of multisensory processes.

Lizabeth M. Romanski. Cereb Cortex. ;17(Suppl 1):i61-i69.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Representation and Integration of Auditory and Visual Stimuli in the Primate Ventral Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Vocalization responsive neurons in VLPFC. The responses to 5 species-specific vocalizations are shown for 2 example neurons in (A) and (B). The neural response is depicted and the spectrogram for the corresponding vocalization stimulus, which evoked the given response is shown below the raster/spike density plot. The vocalization call type is indicated at the top of each panel. The vocalization onset time was at time 0. The cell in (A) had a response to submissive screams (SC) and to copulation screams (CS). This is also indicated in the dendrogram of the mean response to all 10 call types shown in (C). The cell in (B) responded best to pant threats and grunts. The dendrogram for this cell is shown in (D) and indicates a similar response to the acoustically similar, but functionally different, pants (AG) and grunts (GT). Our data indicated that prefrontal neurons respond with a similar firing rate to calls that have similar acoustic features.

Lizabeth M. Romanski. Cereb Cortex. ;17(Suppl 1):i61-i69.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Representation and Integration of Auditory and Visual Stimuli in the Primate Ventral Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Multisensory responses in VLPFC. The neural responses of 2 neurons are shown in (A) and (B) as raster/spike density functions and a graph of mean firing rate (at right). A multisensory enhanced response is shown in (A) with a strong response to the vocalization (A, white bar in graph), a smaller response to the corresponding face movie (Vm, gray bar in graph), and an increase in responding to the combined AV presentation (AVm, black bar in graph). The cell in (B) had a strong response to the vocalization (A), no response to the face movie (Vm), and exhibited multisensory suppression when the stimuli were combined (AVm, black bar). Multisensory cells were found across previously identified auditory and visual responsive areas (Sugihara et al. 2006) and are shown in the schematic of the prefrontal cortex in (C), as black circles scattered across lower VLPFC. The auditory and visual domains are outlined in gray with dotted lines (similar to Fig. 1).

Lizabeth M. Romanski. Cereb Cortex. ;17(Suppl 1):i61-i69.

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