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1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN MICE WITH A TARGETED MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE: A Model for the Study of Intestinal Ileus and Hirschsprung's Disease.

Microscopic structure of the colon in WT and VIP−/− mice. Gut sections were stained using standard H&E staining.

V Lelievre, et al. Peptides. ;28(9):1688-1699.
2.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN MICE WITH A TARGETED MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE: A Model for the Study of Intestinal Ileus and Hirschsprung's Disease.

Peristaltic activity in WT vs. VIP−/− mice. A: migration of charcoal-stained bolus along the GI tract 30 min after gavage. B: Distribution of fluorescein-labeled dextran along the gastro-intestinal tract 60 minutes post administration in WT controls vs. VIP−/− mice. Procedures are described in methods. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (n=3).

V Lelievre, et al. Peptides. ;28(9):1688-1699.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN MICE WITH A TARGETED MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE: A Model for the Study of Intestinal Ileus and Hirschsprung's Disease.

Microscopic structure of the proximal jejunum in WT and VIP−/− mice. Small bowel sections were stained using standard H&E staining. Pictures at low (x2.5, x10, upper panel) and higher magnification (x20, x40; mid and lower panels, respectively) revealed an overall increase in thickness of muscularis mucosa in VIP KO (B, D and F) vs. controls (A, C and E), as well as higher numbers of mucus-forming cells (G vs. E).

V Lelievre, et al. Peptides. ;28(9):1688-1699.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN MICE WITH A TARGETED MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE: A Model for the Study of Intestinal Ileus and Hirschsprung's Disease.

Alcian blue staining to visualize mucus deposits on sections in duodenum (A–D) and distal colon (E–H) from WT (left panel) and VIP−/− mice (right panels). As expected from H&E staining shown in figures 2 & 3, Alcian blue staining revealed a significant difference in mucus-positive cells in the small intestine, but no change in colon. However, sections from VIP−/− showed a dramatic reduction in the amount of mucus released in the lumen in both small (A, C vs B, D), and large (E, G vs F, H) bowels.

V Lelievre, et al. Peptides. ;28(9):1688-1699.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN MICE WITH A TARGETED MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE: A Model for the Study of Intestinal Ileus and Hirschsprung's Disease.

Microscopic structure of myenteric plexus in duodenum and distal colon of WT and VIP−/− mice. H&E (A, B, G and H) and S100β (C–D & I–J) and pan-neurofilaments (NF) (E, F) stainings are shown in WT and VIP KO mice (left and right panels, respectively). Structural differences were observed in duodenum of VIP deficient mice when compared to WT controls. Plexuses from KO mice showed enlarged unstained patches (A vs B) that were non-immunoreactive with S100β or NF antibodies used to specifically reveal Schwann cells and axons (C vs. D & E vs. F, respectively). However, immunofluorescence emitted by the pan-NF antibody coupled with green fluorescent dye-labeled conjugates (E vs. F) revealed larger area signals within the external plexus of the KO mice than WT controls, suggesting the presence of bigger axons within the myenteric plexus of VIP-deficient mice. Conversely, no obvious differences in plexus structures of the large bowel (G–J) were using these techniques (pan-NF not shown).

V Lelievre, et al. Peptides. ;28(9):1688-1699.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: GASTROINTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION IN MICE WITH A TARGETED MUTATION IN THE GENE ENCODING VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE: A Model for the Study of Intestinal Ileus and Hirschsprung's Disease.

A: Low magnification picture of the GI tract of representative WT, VIP+/−, and VIP−/− mice. Of interest, total GI length and appendix size are reduced when compared to their dimensions in the tract from a representative age-matching control animal B. High magnification photomicrographs showing some of the anatomical details reported in Table III. Left panel shows individual villi: arrows point to enterocytes (EC) and mucous-secreting (goblet) cells (GC); VW- and EL-labeled brackets denote villus width and enterocyte length, respectively. Right panel is a high power view showing the muscularis propria (MP), consisting of the outer (longitudinal) cell layer (OCL) and the inner (circular) cell layer (ICL). Arrow points to a myenteric plexus (MyP), which lies between the two muscle layers of the muscularis propria.

V Lelievre, et al. Peptides. ;28(9):1688-1699.

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