Results: 2

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Genetic Influence on Contrast Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Male Twins.

Univariate ACE (upper) and ADE (lower) path diagrams. Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes; therefore, they correlate perfectly in terms of the additive (‘ A ’) and non-additive (‘D’; a single gene of major influence and/or gene-gene interaction) genetic influence. Dizygotic twins share on average 50% of their genes, resulting in correlations of roughly .50 for additive genetic influence and .25 for non-additive genetic influence. The familial environment (‘C’) for both types of twins is assumed to be equal and not affected by the observed similarity of the twins (Neale & Cardon, 1992). ‘ A ’= additive genetic influences; ‘C’= common or shared environmental influences; ‘D’= non-additive (a single gene of major influence and/or gene-gene interaction) genetic influences; ‘E’ = nonshared or individual-specific environmental influences (Neale & Cardon, 1992).

Alice Cronin-Golomb, et al. Vision Res. ;47(16):2179-2186.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Genetic Influence on Contrast Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Male Twins.

Mean performance of young comparison adults (n = 14, ages 18 to 25), the VETSA sample (n = 714, ages 52 to 60), and elderly comparison adults (n = 16, ages 61 to 82) at each spatial frequency as a function of the mean log contrast sensitivity. Standard deviations at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cpd respectively are as follows for each group: Young .12, .28, .27, .20, .27; VETSA .11, .14, .16, .24, .29; Elderly .08, .16, .14, .25, .23.

Alice Cronin-Golomb, et al. Vision Res. ;47(16):2179-2186.

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