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1.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Input wall thickness of the finite-element model of the 3D patient-specific pulmonary vascular structure

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
2.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Schematic of the artery wall and the eight-chain orthotropic unit element to model the orthotropic behavior of synthetic network structure in the intimal-medial layer

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
3.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Predicted (a) circumferential and (b) longitudinal stresses versus diameter for the P-D responses in Fig. 4. Axial stretch λz is increased from 1.0 to 1.5 in increments of 0.1.

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
4.
Fig. 8

Fig. 8. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Contours of circumferential strain (a) at pressure of 40.5 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be isotropic with material parameters HI from Table 1; (b) at pressure of 40.5 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be orthotropic and stiffer in the longitudinal direction with material parameters HOL from Table 1; (c) at pressure of 39.6 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be orthotropic and stiffer in the circumferential direction with material parameters HOC from Table 1

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
5.
Fig. 7

Fig. 7. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Contours of longitudinal strain (a) at pressure of 40.5 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be isotropic with material parameters HI from Table 1; (b) at pressure of 40.5 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be orthotropic and stiffer in the longitudinal direction with material parameters HOL from Table 1; and (c) at pressure of 39.6 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be orthotropic and stiffer in the circumferential direction with material parameters HOC from Table 1

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
6.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Predicted P-D responses using a simple tube inflation model. The artery wall is assumed to be isotropic with material parameters HI from Table 1. Curves from right to left correspond to axial stretch λz from 1.0 to 1.5 in increments of 0.1.

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
7.
Fig. 9

Fig. 9. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Contours of stresses in the circumferential (left) and longitudinal (right) directions: (a) at pressure of 40.5 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be isotropic with material parameters HI from Table 1; (b) at pressure of 40.5 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be orthotropic and stiffer in the longitudinal direction with material parameters HOL from Table 1; (b) at pressure of 39.6 mm Hg when the artery wall is assumed to be orthotropic and stiffer in the circumferential direction with material parameters HOC from Table 1

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
8.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Finite element mesh of a 3D patient-specific proximal pulmonary vascular structure reconstructed from biplane angiography images. Three end movement planes are applied to constrain the movement of the 3D anatomy. The nodes at the ends of the MPA, LPA, and RPA are allowed to move only in the end movement plane.

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
9.
Fig. 10

Fig. 10. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

Predicted P-D responses at the midpoint of RPA when the artery wall is assumed to be isotropic with material parameters HI, orthotropic and stiffer in the longitudinal direction with material parameters HOL, and orthotropic and stiffer in the circumferential direction with material parameters HOC from Table 1. Sensitivity study on the thickness of the arterial wall was performed by increasing the nodal thickness from 10% (HI) to 12% and 16% of the local diameter.

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.
10.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: Application of A Microstructural Constitutive Model of the Pulmonary Artery to Patient-Specific Studies: Validation and Effect of Orthotropy.

P-D loops of a normotensive subject (squares) and a hypertensive patient (circles). Linear regression lines of pressure versus diameter for each loop are also shown. Simulations were based on a tube inflation model. Solid lines correspond to simulations using material parameters HI and dashed lines correspond to simulations using material parameters NI from Table 1. Initial diameters of the tube vary from 0.75 cm to 1.25 cm to account for the different sizes of the arteries due to the different ages of the patients.

Yanhang Zhang, et al. J Biomech Eng. ;129(2):193-201.

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