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1.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Mean angles for a MTP, b ankle, c knee and d hip joints as a function of normalized stance time during downslope overground walking before (C) and for the different time windows (W1–W5, see “Methods”) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles (n = 5). PC paw contact; PO paw lift-off

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
2.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Mean angles for a MTP, b ankle, c knee and d hip joints as a function of normalized stance time during overground walking on a level surface before (C) and for the different time windows (W1–W5, see “Methods”) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles (n = 5). PC paw contact; PO paw lift-off

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
3.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Stick figures of the hindlimb, reconstructed from the mean kinematics of all five cats, at the time instant in stance corresponding to peak ankle flexion before self-reinnervation (C, thin lines) and at the first time window (W1, thick lines) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles for downslope, level and upslope walking (for values of time instants see text)

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
4.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Mean angles for a MTP, b ankle, c knee and d hip joints as a function of normalized stance time during upslope overground walking before (C) and for the different time windows (W1–W5, see “Methods”) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles (n = 5, except for W1 n = 4). PC paw contact; PO paw lift-off

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
5.
Fig. 9

Fig. 9. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Mean hip–knee (left column), ankle–knee (middle column) and ankle–hip (right column) proWles during downslope (top row), level (middle row) and upslope (bottom row) overground walking before (C) and for the different time windows (W1–W5, see “Methods”) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles (n = 5, except for W1 in upslope walking n = 4). Paw contact, PC (open square), and paw lift-off, PO (open triangle), are indicated

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
6.
Fig. 8

Fig. 8. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Ranges of motion during the extension and flexion phases in stance during downslope (left column), level (middle column) and upslope (right column) overground walking before (C) and for the different time windows (W1–W5, see “Methods”) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles. Note that for downslope walking no knee extension was observed (see also Fig. 3c) and that for the MTP joint (j) two flexion phases were found (see also Fig. 3a). Asterisk denotes a value significantly different from the control value. Values are shown as mean ± SD (n = 5, except for W1 in upslope walking n = 4)

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
7.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Definition of joint angles (left) and parameters for hindlimb orientation (right). The endpoints of the segments (i.e., pelvis, thigh, shank, tarsals, and digits) over which the reflective markers were placed are indicated: iliac crest, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, fifth metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) and the most distal part of the fifth digit (Toe). Joint angles were defined as the included angle between the adjacent segments, except for the MTP joint. Hh (hip height), the orthogonal distance from walkway to greater trochanter. D, distance from Hh line to the most distal part of the fifth digit (Toe) parallel to the walkway. D is measured at paw contact when the hindlimb has an anterior orientation (Da) and at paw liftoff when the hindlimb has a posterior orientation (Dp)

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
8.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

The range of ankle flexion in stance during level walking for individual step cycles of one animal before self-reinnervation (Control) and at each measurement after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles. For mean data of the same kinematic variable see Fig. 8h. Lines indicating the mean + and − one SD of the control data are plotted (1) to show recovery of the ankle joint parameter as well as (2) to compare pre self-reinnervation data of the ipsilateral leg (filled square) with data of the contralateral non-reinnervated hindlimb recorded in the last time window W5 (open square). With regard to the latter, it was not statistically different from the ipsilateral control. This was also the case for upslope and downslope walking

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
9.
Fig. 10

Fig. 10. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Comparison of stretch-evoked responses in reinnervated and contralateral gastrocnemius muscles. Data from one animal are shown, but similar results were found in three of the other four cats. a Super-imposed responses from the reinnervated (red, bottom trace) and contralateral (blue, top trace) muscles obtained at matching initial forces together with the imposed length changes. b The muscle responses obtained during the hold phase (absolute force minus background at t = 350 ms) plotted as a function of background force during decaying crossed-extension reflexes. The points were fitted with a second-order polynomial and dashed lines indicate the 95% confidence intervals. This figure clearly illustrates a loss of reflex action in the reinnervated muscle (for explanation of criteria see text)

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.
10.
Fig. 7

Fig. 7. From: The effects of self-reinnervation of cat medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles on hindlimb kinematics in slope walking.

Angular positions of all four joints at different points in stance during downslope (left column), level (middle column) and upslope (right column) overground walking before (C) and for the different time windows (W1–W5, see “Methods”) after self-reinnervation of the MG and LG muscles. When present, angles at paw contact (PC), paw lift-off (PO) as well as peak extension and flexion angles are indicated. As the PO data for hip and knee joints was similar to peak extension data (no significant effects for both parameters), only the latter is shown, except for the knee joint during downslope walking that did not involve knee extension. Asterisk denotes a value significantly different from the control value. Values are shown as mean ± SD (n = 5, except for W1 in upslope walking n = 4)

Huub Maas, et al. Exp Brain Res. ;181(2):377-393.

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