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Results: 2

1.
FIG. 1.

FIG. 1. From: Effects of Concomitant Schistosoma haematobium Infection on the Serum Cytokine Levels Elicited by Acute Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Infection in Malian Children .

Background geometric mean values for the cytokines IL-6 (a), IL-10 (b), IFN-γ (c), and IL-4 (d) in S. hematobium-positive [Sch(+)] and S. hematobium-negative [Sch(−)] individuals, stratified by age group. Increased cytokine levels were found in Sch(+) children (n = 34) compared to Sch(−) children (n = 12) who were 4 to 8 years old (a to d). Cytokine levels were also higher in Sch(+) children (n = 37) than in Sch(−) children (n = 19) who were 9 to 14 years old (b to d). No alterations in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, or TNF-α levels were found. A Mann-Whitney rank sum analysis was performed with nonnormally distributed data.

Kirsten E. Lyke, et al. Infect Immun. 2006 October;74(10):5718-5724.
2.
FIG. 2.

FIG. 2. From: Effects of Concomitant Schistosoma haematobium Infection on the Serum Cytokine Levels Elicited by Acute Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Infection in Malian Children .

Geometric mean values for the cytokines IL-6 (a), IL-10 (b), IFN-γ (c), and IL-4 (d) in children who were infected with P. falciparum only [Sch(−)] or were coinfected with S. hematobium [Sch(+)], stratified by age group. Increased IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine levels were found with acute malaria compared to the background levels, but the levels appeared to be blunted in Sch(+) children (n = 129) compared to Sch(−) children (n = 129) who were 4 to 8 years old (a and b). Lower IL-10 was measured in Sch(+) children (n = 124) compared to Sch(−) children (n = 123) who were 9 to 14 years old (b). No alterations in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, or TNF-α were found. A Mann-Whitney rank sum analysis was performed with nonnormally distributed data.

Kirsten E. Lyke, et al. Infect Immun. 2006 October;74(10):5718-5724.

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