Results: 4

1.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates.

Pelvic expression of Pitx1 differs between control and Fox Holes Lakes Pungitius larvae. (a, c, and d) Whole-mount in situ hybridization of larvae from a complete-pelvis (control) population shows Pitx1 expression in the mouth and lower jaw (enlarged lateral view in c) and the prospective pelvic region (enlarged ventral view in d). (b, e, and f) Pitx1 expression is also detected in the mouth and lower jaw of Fox Holes Lakes larvae, but expression is absent from the prospective pelvic region. [Scale bars, 1 mm (a and b) and 0.5 mm (cf).]

Michael D. Shapiro, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 September 12;103(37):13753-13758.
2.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates.

Genomic structure and amino acid sequence of Pitx1 in Pungitius and Gasterosteus. (a) The coding sequence comprises five exons; both genera have splice variants missing exon 3. Putative translation start sites vary between Pungitius (black triangles) and Gasterosteus (white triangles), and stop sites are conserved (black diamonds). Exon 1 is noncoding in Gasterosteus. (b) Predicted amino acid sequences of Pitx1 splice variants in Pungitius (Pp1, Pp2) and Gasterosteus (Ga1, Ga2). Arrows mark exon boundaries.

Michael D. Shapiro, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 September 12;103(37):13753-13758.
3.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates.

Pelvic morphology of intergeneric hybrid progeny. Total bilateral pelvic scores range from 0 (absent pelvis) to 8 (complete pelvis with 4 elements on each side). (a) Parental and representative hybrid fish from Mud Lake control cross showing strong development of pelvic structures. Distribution of scores is skewed toward complete pelvises. (b) In contrast, hybrid progeny from pelvisless parents show very weak or no pelvic development. (c and d) In crosses with one complete-pelvis and one pelvisless parent, distributions of hybrid progeny pelvic scores are skewed toward strong pelvic development. ec, left ectocoracoid; ps, pelvic spine. (Scale bars, 2 mm.)

Michael D. Shapiro, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 September 12;103(37):13753-13758.
4.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Parallel genetic origins of pelvic reduction in vertebrates.

Asymmetry is a morphological signature of pelvic reduction in multiple, distantly related vertebrates. (a) In both an F2 threespine stickleback cross (Upper) and a natural population of Florida manatees (Lower), pelvic remnants tend to be larger on the left side of the body than on the right. Each bar on the histograms represents a different individual; negative values indicate a larger right remnant. (b) Complementation and mapping crosses suggest that Pitx1 is involved repeatedly in the evolution of pelvic reduction in different populations of threespine (Gasterosteus) and ninespine (Pungitius) sticklebacks. Freshwater populations diverged from marine populations 10,000–20,000 years ago, whereas the two genera shared a complete-pelvis common ancestor at least 10 million years ago. Similar genetic mechanisms may underlie pelvic reduction in manatees, which diverged hundreds of millions of years ago from the lineage that includes sticklebacks and tens of millions of years ago from complete-pelvis relatives, such as elephants. Animal drawings in (b) are modified after refs. 19, 35, 52, 64.

Michael D. Shapiro, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 September 12;103(37):13753-13758.

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