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1.
FIG. 5.

FIG. 5. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in GALT and peripheral blood of HIV-infected patients during HAART. HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in both GALT and peripheral blood of HIV-infected patients during HAART using intracellular cytokine flow cytometry.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
2.
FIG. 8.

FIG. 8. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Suppression of viral replication and increased gene expression of mucosal repair and regeneration during CD4+ T-cell repopulation in GALT. Data are presented at 6 months post-HAART for patient 116 (efficient CD4+ T-cell restoration) and patient 123 (poor CD4+ T-cell restoration).

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
3.
FIG. 3.

FIG. 3. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Localization of CD4+ T cells in GALT of HIV-infected patients during therapy by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in GALT biopsy samples using confocal microscopy. Anti-CD4 and -CD3 antibodies were used, followed by secondary anti-mouse Cy3 (red) and anti-rabbit Alexa 488 (green), respectively. CD3+ CD4+ T cells (yellow), CD3+ cells (green), and CD4+ T cells (red) were detected.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
4.
FIG. 4.

FIG. 4. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Immunophenotypic analysis demonstrated that memory CD4+ T cells repopulate GALT following HAART. (A) Expression of naive/memory T-cell markers CD45RA and CD45RO in repopulating CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and jejunal biopsy samples from HIV-infected patients following HAART. (B) Immunophenotypic analysis showed expression of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4, LFA-1 and αEβ7 (trafficking markers) in repopulating CD4+ T cells in GALT of HIV-1-infected patients during HAART.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
5.
FIG. 7.

FIG. 7. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Mucosal gene expression profiles in patients with divergent CD4+ T-cell restoration during HAART. Gene expression profiles were determined in GALT biopsy samples pre-HAART (Pre) and at 3 months post-HAART (3 mo) by DNA microarray analysis and genes associated with inflammation and immune activation (A) and lipid metabolism and nutrient digestive and absorption (B) were identified.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
6.
FIG. 1.

FIG. 1. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Suppression of HIV replication and restoration of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of HIV-infected patients during HAART. Plasma viral loads and CD4+ T-cell numbers in peripheral blood during HAART were longitudinally monitored in patients initiating HAART during PHI (A) or CHI (B). The detection limit for the viral load was 50 copies/ml. (C) The rate of CD4+ T-cell restoration in PHI and CHI patients, measured as average change in percentage points per month.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
7.
FIG. 2.

FIG. 2. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Suppression of HIV replication and restoration of CD4+ T cells in GALT of HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. (A) Viral loads in GALT from PHI and CHI patients were determined prior to and post-HAART by real-time PCR. Relative changes were calculated by comparison of HIV RNA copies to the lowest HIV RNA levels measured in GALT of HIV patients on HAART. Flow cytometric analysis was performed in longitudinal GALT biopsy samples from PHI (B) and CHI (C) patients prior to and following HAART.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.
8.
FIG. 6.

FIG. 6. From: Viral Suppression and Immune Restoration in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients Initiating Therapy during Primary or Chronic Infection.

Alterations in gut mucosal gene expression in HIV-infected patients during therapy. Genes differentially expressed (≥1.5-fold above or below mean baseline in healthy, uninfected controls; P value ≤ 0.05) in GALT were hierarchically clustered to identify patterns of up (red) and down (green) regulation in response to HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy. Up and down regulated genes were then statistically analyzed to determine which biological processes or molecular functions were enriched or overrepresented. EtOH, ethanol.

Moraima Guadalupe, et al. J Virol. 2006 August;80(16):8236-8247.

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