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1.
Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. From: Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: Rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system.

Circadian locomotor activity of Rpe65−/−;Opn4−/−;rdta mice. Double-plotted locomotor activity records from representative animals in a light/dark cycle (lights on at 0500 h and off at 1700 h), followed by either dim (10 μW/cm2, Left) or bright (100 μW/cm2, Right) constant light. Blue shading indicates times when lights are on.

Susan E. Doyle, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 July 5;103(27):10432-10437.
2.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: Rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system.

Rpe65−/− mice have fewer melanopsin-positive ipRGCs than WT controls. (A) Number of immunofluorescent retinal ganglion cells per mm2 estimated from flat-mounted retinas. Black bar, Rpe65−/−; gray bar, Rpe65+/+. (B) Vertical retinal sections showing melanopsin immunofluorescence in red. Cell nuclei are stained blue with DAPI. Upper, Rpe65−/−; Lower, Rpe65+/+. INL, inner nuclear layer; GC, ganglion cell layer.

Susan E. Doyle, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 July 5;103(27):10432-10437.
3.
Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. From: Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: Rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system.

Circadian phenotypes of Rpe65−/−;Opn4−/− mice. Representative wheel-running records of a diurnally entrained (A) and a free-running (B) mouse. Arrow in A indicates day of release into DD. Records are double-plotted so that each horizontal trace represents 48 h; subsequent day’s records are shown to the right and beneath the day before. The light/dark cycle (lights on at 0500 h and off at 1700 h) is indicated by shading in each actogram (blue shaded areas indicate times when lights are on).

Susan E. Doyle, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 July 5;103(27):10432-10437.
4.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: Rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system.

Phase shifting to light is reduced in Rpe65−/− mice. (A) Magnitude of phase delays produced by 15 min of 515-nm light at three different irradiances. Handling controls were removed from their cages at CT 16 and placed in the light-pulse apparatus exactly as with experimental animals except that no light pulse was given. (Inset) Mean phase shift to a 15-min light pulse applied at CT 23.5, which shifts locomotor activity in the opposite direction (advance shift). (B) Phase shifts to 15 min of 480-nm light at CT 16. Error bars indicate SEM. ∗, P < 0.05 compared with controls; ∗∗, P < 0.01 compared with controls, one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. μW values are per cm2.

Susan E. Doyle, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 July 5;103(27):10432-10437.
5.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: Rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system.

Locomotor activity rhythms in Rpe65 mice. (AC) Representative running wheel records of WT (Rpe65+/+) (A), Rpe65 heterozygote (Rpe65+/−) (B), and homozygous Rpe65 knockout (Rpe65−/−) (C) mice. Each horizontal line represents 24 h, with successive days plotted beneath each other. Activity was first recorded in a light/dark cycle (lights on at 0500 h and off at 1700 h) as indicated by open and filled bars at the top of each record. Animals were then transferred to DD (arrows) and given a 15-min light pulse (515 nm and 0.1 μW) at CT 16 (4 h after activity onset; filled circle). (D) Mean number of minutes (±SEM) by which activity onset preceded dark onset (ZT12). ∗∗∗, P < 0.001 compared with controls, one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s honestly significant difference test.

Susan E. Doyle, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 July 5;103(27):10432-10437.
6.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: Rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system.

Circadian photosensitivity and melanopsin cell number are restored in Rpe65−/− mice that lack rods. (AC) Phase shifting responses to 15 min of 0.1-μW, 515-nm light at CT 16 in littermate Rpe65;rdta mice. (A and B) Wheel-running records of an Rpe65−/− (A) and Rpe65−/−;rdta (B) mouse in DD. Filled circles indicate time of light pulse. Best-fit lines are drawn through activity onsets on the days before and after the pulse. (C) Histogram showing mean phase shifts ± SEM. ∗, P < 0.05 compared with the three control groups, ANOVA, post hoc Fisher’s least significant difference test. (D) Mean number of melanopsin immunoreactive cells ± SEM estimated from flat mounts of Rpe65;rdta retinas. ∗∗, P < 0.01 compared with all controls, ANOVA, post hoc Tukey’s honestly significant difference test.

Susan E. Doyle, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 July 5;103(27):10432-10437.

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