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1.
FIG. 4.

FIG. 4. From: Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant.

Correlation of neutralization sensitivity with V1-to-V5 length (A) and PNGS (B) in this region. The mean values of envelope variants from each mother (◊) and infant (Δ) were used. The coefficient R and P values were generated using Spearman's correlation.

Xueling Wu, et al. J Virol. 2006 January;80(2):835-844.
2.
FIG. 6.

FIG. 6. From: Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant.

Neutralization IC50s of six envelope variants vertically transmitted by autologous infant longitudinal plasmas. Plasma collection times are indicated on the horizontal axes. Neutralization IC50s are plotted on the vertical axes. The peak IC50 values are indicated. Symbols in boldface indicate the time points when each infant first tested positive for HIV.

Xueling Wu, et al. J Virol. 2006 January;80(2):835-844.
3.
FIG. 5.

FIG. 5. From: Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant.

Maximum likelihood analysis of nucleotide sequences spanning the V1-to-V5 region of envelope from six mother-infant transmission pairs. Horizontal branch lengths are drawn to scale. Each symbol represents an individual variant sequence. The panel at the top left corner is the key to the type of samples from which the envelope sequences were derived. The neutralization sensitivity of each variant to maternal plasma is indicated by the IC50 value (rounded to integers) next to the corresponding symbol of the variant. IC50s over 100 are highlighted.

Xueling Wu, et al. J Virol. 2006 January;80(2):835-844.
4.
FIG. 1.

FIG. 1. From: Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant.

Neighbor-joining tree based on distance, showing the epidemiologic linkage between envelope sequences from mother (⧫) and infant (Δ) subjects within each transmission pair. A total of 78 nucleotide sequences spanning the V1-to-V5 region of envelope, with 150 reference sequences from group M HIV-1, were codon aligned and subjected to phylogenetic tree construction using the general time-reversible model. Two subtype K references were used as an outgroup. Horizontal branch lengths are drawn to scale. Subtypes and bootstrap values are indicated to the left of each node. The location of each mother-infant transmission pair is indicated.

Xueling Wu, et al. J Virol. 2006 January;80(2):835-844.
5.
FIG. 2.

FIG. 2. From: Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant.

Neutralization sensitivity of envelope variants for maternal plasma. (A) Percent neutralization versus plasma dilution of viruses pseudotyped with envelope variants from transmission pair G505. (B) Comparison of neutralization IC50s between variants from mothers (◊) and those from infants (Δ) within each transmission pair. The horizontal bars indicate the median IC50 for each subject. The vertical line divides the transmission pairs into two groups: to the left are pairs with lower median IC50s of variants from infants; to the right are pairs with median IC50s of variants from infants equal to or higher than the median IC50s of variants from each paired mother. The dashed horizontal line indicates the lowest dilution tested. (C) Comparison of IC50s between variants from mothers (◊) and from infants (Δ) performed by GEE using a logit link and exchangeable correlation structure. The P value of the comparison is shown. (D) Box plot of median IC50 of variants from mothers and infants. The P value is for the comparison of the median IC50 of variants from each infant to the median IC50 of variants from the paired mother (two-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Xueling Wu, et al. J Virol. 2006 January;80(2):835-844.
6.
FIG. 3.

FIG. 3. From: Neutralization Escape Variants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Are Transmitted from Mother to Infant.

Comparison of amino acid V1-to-V5 sequences between maternal (◊) and infant (Δ) variants. (A) Plot of the length of sequences from each transmission pair. (B) Plot of the number of PNGS of sequences from each transmission pair. In panels A and B, the horizontal bars indicate the mean value for each subject. The vertical line divides the transmission pairs into two groups: to the left are pairs with lower mean values from infant; to the right are pairs with equal or higher mean values from infants compared to the mean value from each paired mother. (C) Comparison of length of the aggregate sequences from mothers and infants. (D) Comparison of number of PNGS of the aggregate sequences from mothers and infants. In panels C and D, P values are from analysis using a GEE model with a Gaussian link and exchangeable correlation structure. (E) Positions within the V1-to-V5 region of envelope where a PNGS was absent in variants from infant but present in variants from the paired mother. The number and proportion of maternal envelope variants containing the PNGS at the indicated positions are shown. The absence of PNGS caused by deletions or mutations is indicated by D or M, respectively. The PNGS positions were assigned according to the HXB2 amino acid sequence.

Xueling Wu, et al. J Virol. 2006 January;80(2):835-844.

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