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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: SINEs point to abundant editing in the human genome.

Alu elements in human genes. (a) A typical gene, with exons as boxes and introns as lines. Alu elements (arrows) are found at multiple locations, primarily in introns, and in either orientation (black or gray shading). (b) Part of the gene from (a) is shown after transcription; inverted Alu elements can base-pair to give dsRNA structures that serve as substrates for ADAR editing. (c) Editing may lead to one or more consequences (see text for details).

Joshua DeCerbo, et al. Genome Biol. 2005;6(4):216-216.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: SINEs point to abundant editing in the human genome.

Double-stranded RNAs can be edited by ADARs by (a) selective or (b) promiscuous editing. (a) Short, imperfect dsRNA duplexes can be edited selectively at precise locations, which are determined by both the sequence and structure of the RNAs. When this occurs in mRNAs, the inosines (I) are translated as guanosines, thus generating proteins with altered amino-acid sequences. (b) Long perfect duplexes (over 30 bp) can be promiscuously edited, with up to half of the adenosines (A) on each strand being deaminated to I in an almost random fashion. These edited RNAs are not destined for translation in the cytoplasm; editing may lead to a number of distinct consequences.

Joshua DeCerbo, et al. Genome Biol. 2005;6(4):216-216.

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