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1.
FIG. 2.

FIG. 2. From: Prophylactic Activation of Neuroprotective Stress Response Pathways by Dietary and Behavioral Manipulations.

Reciprocal interactions between serotonergic and BDNF signaling that likely play important roles in multiple responses of neurons to environmental factors. Serotonergic neurons in the raphe nucleus innervate neurons throughout the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Stimulation of serotonin receptors on the latter neurons results in production of cyclic AMP, activation of CREB and increased transcription of the BDNF gene. BDNF, in turn, can activate its high-affinity receptor trkB in serotonergic neurons, resulting in activation of Akt kinase and transcription factors (TF) and increased production of serotonin. By increasing the amount of serotonin in the synapse, antidepressants can induce BDNF production. Dietary restriction, and physical and mental exercise, up-regulate BDNF signaling and may thereby increase serotonergic signaling as well.

Mark P. Mattson, et al. NeuroRx. 2004 January;1(1):111-116.
2.
FIG. 1.

FIG. 1. From: Prophylactic Activation of Neuroprotective Stress Response Pathways by Dietary and Behavioral Manipulations.

Mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of dietary restriction, and physical and mental exercise on neurons. All three environmental factors impose a mild stress on neurons, which results from increased activity in neuronal circuits and/or metabolic stress. The cellular stress involves increased levels of intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species which, in turn, activate kinases and transcription factors. The transcription factors induce the expression of genes that encode stress resistance proteins (SRPs), neurotrophic factors such as BDNF, and anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2. Kinases may phosphorylate substrate proteins involved in maintenance of ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, and stress resistance.

Mark P. Mattson, et al. NeuroRx. 2004 January;1(1):111-116.

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