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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Illustration of training apparatus and behaviors in the task. (A) Photograph of the polycarbonate panel removed from the operant chamber to show the odor sampling port (white circle) and the fluid delivery well (black circle). (B) Schematic drawings illustrating the sequence of behaviors in the go, no-go olfactory discrimination task using the apparatus in A.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
2.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Acquisition of successive odor discrimination problems by ABL lesioned (black bars) and control (white bars) rats. Rate of acquisition of each odor discrimination problem (D1, D2, D3, D4) is represented as the trials it took for each rat to meet a criterion of 18 correct responses in a moving block of 20 trials. There was no effect of lesion on acquisition of any of the individual odor discriminations or on the improvement observed across successive problems.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Acquisition of successive odor discrimination problems by OFC lesioned (black bars) and control (white bars) rats. Rate of acquisition of each odor discrimination problem (D1, D2, D3, D4) is represented as the trials it took for each rat to meet a criterion of 18 correct responses in a moving block of 20 trials. There was no effect of lesion on acquisition of any of the individual odor discriminations or on the improvement observed across successive problems.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Difference in latency (milliseconds) to respond at the fluid well after the end of odor sampling for OFC lesioned (black bars) and control (white bars) rats. Difference was calculated as the average response latency on negative minus positive trials within each phase, averaged for the second (D2), third (D3), and fourth (D4) discrimination problems. No-go trials, in which the rat made no response for 3000 msec, were excluded from the analysis. OFC-lesioned rats failed to develop the learning-related latency difference exhibited by control rats.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
5.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Difference in latency (milliseconds) to respond at the fluid well after the end of odor sampling for ABL lesioned (black bars) and control (white bars) rats. Difference was calculated as the average response latency on negative minus positive trials within each phase, averaged for the second (D2), third (D3), and fourth (D4) discrimination problems. No-go trials, in which the rat made no response for 3000 msec were excluded from the analysis. ABL-lesioned rats failed to develop the learning-related latency difference exhibited by control rats.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
6.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Photomicrograph and drawings showing a reconstruction of the region of damage in ABL in lesioned subjects. (A) Photomicrograph of coronal sections taken through the amygdala in a control (top) and a lesioned (bottom) rat. The lesioned ABL tissue has undergone substantial shrinkage, causing the central nucleus (CEA) to be displaced laterally. (B) Drawings depict the largest (hatched areas) and smallest (black areas) lesions in each section from animals used in the experiment. Plates are adapted from the atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1997). Arrows denote lesion borders.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
7.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Photomicrograph and drawings showing a reconstruction of the region of damage in OFC in lesioned subjects. (A) Photomicrograph of coronal sections taken through the orbitofrontal region in a control (left) and a lesioned (right) rat. Note the loss of cells and consolidation in the orbitofrontal area, accompanied by gliosis at the borders of the lesion. (B) Drawings depict the largest (diagonal hatched areas) and smallest (black areas) lesions in each section from animals used in the experiment. A representative lesion is also shown (cross-hatched areas). Plates are adapted from the atlas of Swanson (1992).

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
8.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Choice performance across serial reversals of the final odor discrimination problem (D4) by OFC-lesioned (black bars) and control (white bars) rats. Performance is shown for both the retention and reversal phases of training, represented as the trials required for each rat to meet a criterion of 18 correct responses in a moving block of 20 trials. Gray areas on reversal days indicate the trials required to reach 50% performance as a measure of perseveration on the old contingencies. OFC-lesioned rats were impaired at acquiring reversals, irrespective of whether the reversed odor discrimination problem was composed of new contingencies (S1−/S2+) or was a return to the original contingencies (S1+/S2−). There was no effect of lesion on the tendency to perseverate on reversal days.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.
9.
Figure 9

Figure 9. From: Lesions of Orbitofrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala Complex Disrupt Acquisition of Odor-Guided Discriminations and Reversals.

Choice performance across serial reversals of the final odor discrimination problem (D4) by ABL-lesioned (black bars) and control (white bars) rats. Performance is shown for both the retention and reversal phases of training, represented as the trials required for each rat to meet a criterion of 18 correct responses in a moving block of 20 trials. Gray areas on reversal days indicate the trials required to reach 50% performance as a measure of perseveration on the old contingencies. ABL-lesioned rats were impaired at acquiring and retaining the new contingencies (S1−/S2+), irrespective of whether the odor problem was presented with this set of contingencies in a reversal session or not. In contrast, ABL-lesioned rats performed normally in retaining and acquiring a reversal of the odor problem when it was presented with the original contingencies (S1+/S2−). There was no effect of lesion on the tendency to perseverate on reversal days.

Geoffrey Schoenbaum, et al. Learn Mem. 2003 March;10(2):129-140.

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