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1.
FIG. 10.

FIG. 10. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Correlation between the levels of TGF-β in plasma and IL-18 in serum of HIV-infected individuals. The figure depicts a significant negative correlation between these two parameters as determined by the Pearson's method.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
2.
FIG. 4.

FIG. 4. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Correlation between concentrations of IL-18 in serum and its production from PBMC. (A) Correlation between concentrations of IL-18 in serum and its production from PBMC culture supernatants (S/N) from seven HIV-seronegative control subjects after 12 h of incubation. (B) Correlation between these two parameters from eight HIV-infected/AIDS patients. Similar correlation results were obtained when PBMC were stimulated with LPS.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
3.
FIG. 9.

FIG. 9. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

TGF-β contents of the plasma samples. The level of TGF-β was measured in the samples with a commercial ELISA kit. The figure depicts average ± standard error concentration of this cytokine in the samples after its activation (total TGF-β). N and P, HIV-seronegative healthy and HIV-infected donors, respectively. The star on the top of a bar indicates a significant (P < 0.05) difference between the two group means.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
4.
FIG. 2.

FIG. 2. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Concentrations of IL-18 in serum and duration of HIV infection. Average ± standard error concentrations of IL-18 in serum of the three groups of patients with different durations of infection. Note the highest serum concentration in the group that has been infected for 3 to 6 years. A, HIV-seronegative control donors; B, C and D, HIV-infected donors with a duration of <3 years, 3 to 6 years, and >6 years of HIV infection, respectively.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
5.
FIG. 1.

FIG. 1. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Concentration of IL-18 in the sera of HIV-infected/AIDS patients. IL-18 concentrations were determined in serum samples by using a commercial ELISA kit. (A) IL-18 concentrations in individual sera. A dot indicates an individual serum concentration and the horizontal line in each column indicates group mean. (B) Average ± standard error concentrations of IL-18 in the sera of HIV-infected/AIDS patients and control subjects and the average ± standard error percentages of CD14+ monocytes in PBMC. N and P, HIV-seronegative healthy and HIV-infected donors, respectively. The average concentrations of IL-18 differed significantly between the two groups of donors (P = 0.0002).

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
6.
FIG. 7.

FIG. 7. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Expression of activated caspase-1 in PBMC. The expression of activated caspase-1 was determined by Western blotting in 75 μg of protein from cell lysates by using an activated caspase-1-specific monoclonal antibody. (A) Western blot showing caspase-1 expression in the PBMC of control HIV-seronegative healthy donors (N) and HIV-infected/AIDS patients (P) with (+) and without (−) stimulation with LPS. (B) Densitometric analysis of the blot. The numbers 1, 2, and 3 in panels A and B represent data from different donors. (C) Average ± standard error expression of caspase-1 in these subjects.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
7.
FIG. 3.

FIG. 3. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Production of IL-18 from PBMC. PBMC (2 × 105) from HIV-infected/AIDS patients and HIV-seronegative control subjects were cultured in vitro with and without the presence of LPS, and their culture supernatants were collected at the indicated time points and assayed for IL-18 with a commercial ELISA kit. Average ± standard error production of IL-18 in PBMC microculture supernatants (S/N) from eight HIV-infected/AIDS patients (P) and seven control subjects (N) with (A) and without (B) LPS stimulation. At all the time points tested, the patients' PBMC produced less IL-18 than that produced by the control subjects' PBMC.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
8.
FIG. 5.

FIG. 5. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Expression of IL-18 in PBMC. The expression of IL-18 in PBMC was determined by Western blotting using an IL-18-specific monoclonal antibody in 75 μg of cellular lysate. (A) Western blot showing the precursor form of IL-18 (24 kDa) in PBMC with (+) and without (−) stimulation with LPS in HIV-infected/AIDS patients (P) and HIV-seronegative healthy control (N) subjects. The mature form of IL-18 (18 kDa) could not be detected on the blots. (B) Densitometric analysis of the blot showing expression of IL-18 after normalization with β-actin. The 1, 2, and 3 in panels A and B represent data from different donors. (C) Average ± standard error expression of IL-18 in the PBMC.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
9.
FIG. 8.

FIG. 8. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Effect of TGF-β on IL-18 production from PBMC. PBMC (2 × 105) from HIV-seronegative donors were cultured in 200 μl of the culture medium in 96-well plate alone or in the presence of recombinant human (rh) TGF-β (20 ng per ml; R & D Systems), TGF-β-neutralizing, or control antibody (5 μg per ml each; R & D Systems). Culture supernatants were collected 24 h later and assayed for IL-18 content with the ELISA kit. The figure shows average ± standard error IL-18 contents from three replicate wells. Only the addition of the neutralizing antibody resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in TGF-β production.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.
10.
FIG. 6.

FIG. 6. From: Elevated Levels of Circulating Interleukin-18 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Role of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.

Expression of the IL-18 gene in PBMC. The expression of IL-18 gene in PBMC was determined by RPA with α-32P-labeled cRNA and normalized with respect to GAPDH gene expression (also determined by RPA). (A) Autoradiograph of the polyacrylamide gel showing protected IL-18 and GAPDH-specific probes in the PBMC of HIV-infected/AIDS patients and control subjects with (+) and without (−) stimulation with LPS. Probe and Y tRNA, migration of the labeled cRNA without incubation with mRNA and protection of yeast tRNA (negative control), respectively. (B) Densitometric analysis of the protected probes. Ratio of protected IL-18 and GAPDH probes for each individual. The numbers 1, 2, and 3 in panels A and B represent data for different donors. (C) Average ± standard error expression of the ratio of IL-18 and GAPDH-specific protected probes (IL-18 gene expression). N and P, HIV-seronegative and HIV-infected donors, respectively.

Rasheed Ahmad, et al. J Virol. 2002 December;76(24):12448-12456.

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