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Results: 5

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: A liposome-based therapeutic vaccine against ?-amyloid plaques on the pancreas of transgenic NORBA mice.

Reconstitution of Aβ1–16 in the liposome bilayer. (A) Liposome with anchored Aβ1–16. (B) Magnification of the boxed region in the upper part. (C) Two palmitoylated lysine residues (in the sequence shown with bold characters) are covalently attached at each end of the Aβ1–16 sequence.

Claude Nicolau, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 February 19;99(4):2332-2337.
2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: A liposome-based therapeutic vaccine against ?-amyloid plaques on the pancreas of transgenic NORBA mice.

Disaggregation of Aβ1–42 fibers by sera of immunized C57BL/6 mice. (A) ThT fluorescence emission intensity correlates with the amount of fibrillar amyloid present in solution. Aβ fiber formation during 7 days at 37°C in PBS, pH = 7.1 Antisera were added after 7 days and incubated for 24 h. Bar no. 1, serum of a nonvaccinated animal; bars nos. 2–16, sera of vaccinated animals. (B) Anti-Aβ1–16 mAb 6C6 and irrelevant IgG were incubated at a final concentration of 30 μg/20 μl with Aβ1–42 aggregates for 24 h. Average of three measurements with three different serum samples.

Claude Nicolau, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 February 19;99(4):2332-2337.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: A liposome-based therapeutic vaccine against ?-amyloid plaques on the pancreas of transgenic NORBA mice.

Time dependence of anti-Aβ1–16 antibody titers in animals vaccinated with the liposomal, palmitoylated Aβ1–16 antigen. Antibody response was assayed by ELISA. Microtiter plates were coated with 50 μl of Aβ1–42 solution (1 mg of Aβ1–42/5 ml of PBS) and left overnight at 4°C. Wells were blocked with 200 μl of BSA/PBS (0.5% BSA) for 2 hours at 37°C and washed with 200 μl of PBS/0.005% Triton X-100. Dilutions of sera (1:10–1:100,000) were incubated for 90 min at 37°C. The plates were washed twice with 200 μl of PBS/0.005% Triton X-100 before 50 μl of a goat-anti-mouse antibody (alkaline phosphatase conjugated) was added in a 1:30,000 dilution. After 90 min at 37°C, the wells were washed as described. One hundred microliters of the paranitrophenyl phosphate substrate (one tablet in 5 ml of deionized water) was added, and optical absorption was measured at 405 nm in an ELISA reader 20–60 min later (8). Means of sera from 8 BALB/c mice and means of sera from 12 C57Bl/6 mice and SDs are shown.

Claude Nicolau, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 February 19;99(4):2332-2337.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: A liposome-based therapeutic vaccine against ?-amyloid plaques on the pancreas of transgenic NORBA mice.

Antibody response in mice to different antigens reconstituted in liposomes −lipid + Alum, 6 weeks after the first inoculation. Three groups of animals were immunized: (i) eight BALB/c mice were immunized by six i.p. inoculations at 2-week intervals with 200 μl of the palmitoylated peptide–liposome–lipid A/Alum suspension. Six additional mice were injected with PBS and Alum or with phospholipids and Alum (three animals each). (ii) In a group of 12 C57BL/6-mice, three received liposomes-lipid A and palmitoylated Aβ1–16, three received liposomes-lipid A mixed with the scrambled sequence Aβ42–1, and six were injected with lipids only or left untreated (each three animals). Four animals were left untreated as controls. Blood was collected from the tail vein 4 days after injection. The collected blood (10–30 μl) was diluted immediately with 10 μl of PBS and 5 μl of heparin. The samples were centrifuged, and the serum was tested for anti-Aβ1–42 antibodies by ELISA (see Materials and Methods). (♦) Means of sera from 12 C57BL/6 mice; (⋄) means of sera from 8 BALB/c mice; (▴, □, ▪) means of sera from three animals each and SDs are shown.

Claude Nicolau, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 February 19;99(4):2332-2337.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: A liposome-based therapeutic vaccine against ?-amyloid plaques on the pancreas of transgenic NORBA mice.

Histological study and quantitation of Aβ in thin sections of pancreases from vaccinated and unvaccinated NORBA transgenic mice, stained with ThT. (A) (3.1) 9-month-old mouse vaccinated 7 weeks after birth, without Aβ plaques; (4.4, 4.2) 14-month-old mice with fully developed Aβ plaques, unvaccinated; (9- and 15-month-old mice with fully developed Aβ plaques, vaccinated. (B) Quantitation of fluorescence in images in A. Three sections were used per treatment group, and treatments were unknown to the analyst. Washed sections were stained with a 1% ThT aqueous solution for 3 min. To remove excess fluorochrome from the background, sections were rinsed with water and incubated in 1% acetic acid for 20 min. Sections were washed with water extensively before analysis by fluorescence microscopy. Thin sections stained with ThT were analyzed with a Nikon Labophot Microscope by using a 100-watt mercury source and a Lucifer Yellow Filter Set (Chroma Technology). Images were captured with a Cool Snap Pro Digital Capture Kit (Media Cybernetics) by using a ×40 objective and an exposure time of 600 msec. Images were analyzed with image pro plus v. 4.1 (Media Cybernetics). A uniform threshold setting of 567,000 pixels per image was maintained for all groups. Measurements included the total area of the fluorescent region and the mean intensity within the region.

Claude Nicolau, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 February 19;99(4):2332-2337.

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