Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens.

ROI and RNI production in mammalian cells via phox and NOS: parallel but connecting paths. Nitroxyl anion (NO), a one-electron reduction product of nitric oxide (NO), is unlikely to arise from NO under physiologic conditions, but is considered by some investigators to be a primary and more toxic product of NOS (91). Reaction of RNI with cysteine sulfhydryls can lead either to S-nitrosylation or to oxidation to the sulfenic acid, as well as to disulfide bond formation (not shown), all of which are potentially reversible. Peroxynitrite anion (OONO) and peroxynitrous acid (OONOH) have distinct patterns of reactivity (92), but for simplicity, the text refers to both as peroxynitrite. OONOH spontaneously decomposes via species resembling the reactive radicals, hydroxyl (OH) and/or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). When l-arginine is limiting, NOS can produce superoxide (O2⨪) along with NO, favoring the formation of peroxynitrite (5).

Carl Nathan, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 August 1;97(16):8841-8848.

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