Display Settings:

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Results: 1 to 20 of 240

1.

Complete trisomy 21 syndrome

Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Bloom syndrome

Bloom’s syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, highly characteristic sparseness of subcutaneous fat tissue throughout infancy and early childhood, and short stature throughout postnatal life that in most affected individuals is accompanied by an erythematous and sun-sensitive skin lesion of the face. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common and very possibly responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, the middle ear, and the lung that occur repeatedly in most persons with BSyn. Although most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability, many exhibit a poorly defined (and little studied) learning disability. Women may be fertile, but menopause occurs unusually early; men are infertile. Serious medical complications that are much more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus resembling the adult-onset type, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. BSyn is very rare in all national and ethnic groups but is relatively less rare in Ashkenazi Jews. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has been reported in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Congenital Abnormality
4.

Pfeiffer syndrome

The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
350148
Concept ID:
C1863356
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Waardenburg syndrome type 1

Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair, and skin, along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi). The hearing loss in WS1, observed in approximately 60% of affected individuals, is congenital, typically non-progressive, either unilateral or bilateral, and sensorineural. Most commonly, hearing loss in WS1 is bilateral and profound (>100 dB). The majority of individuals with WS1 have either a white forelock or early graying of the scalp hair before age 30 years. The classic white forelock observed in approximately 45% of individuals is the most common hair pigmentation anomaly seen in WS1. Affected individuals may have complete heterochromia iridium, partial/segmental heterochromia, or hypoplastic or brilliant blue irides. Congenital leukoderma is frequently seen on the face, trunk, or limbs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
376211
Concept ID:
C1847800
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer, although not well defined, may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78554
Concept ID:
C0265326
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to failure to thrive in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Congenital Abnormality
8.

Noonan syndrome 3

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, characteristic facies, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one third of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349931
Concept ID:
C1860991
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Smith-Magenis syndrome

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory integration issues are frequently noted. Children and adults typically have inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsivity, maladaptive behaviors including frequent outbursts/temper tantrums, attention seeking, disobedience, aggression, toileting difficulties, and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) including self-hitting, self-biting, and/or skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. The finger lick and page flipping ("lick and flip") behavior may be less prevalent than initially reported. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically between intellectual functioning and emotional maturity, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

Nonsyndromic permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) is characterized by the onset of hyperglycemia within the first six months of life (mean age: 7 weeks; range: birth to 26 weeks) that does not resolve over time. Clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis include intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), hyperglycemia, glycosuria, osmotic polyuria, severe dehydration, and failure to thrive. Therapy with insulin corrects the hyperglycemia and allows for catch-up growth. The course of PNDM varies by genotype. Pancreatic agenesis/hypoplasia caused by homozygous mutations in PDX1 results in severe insulin deficiency and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371484
Concept ID:
C1833104
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later than average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Disease or Syndrome
12.

ATR-X syndrome

Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or ocular hypertelorism, small nose, tented upper lip, and prominent or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Miller Dieker syndrome

LIS1-associated lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) includes Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) and isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS). Lissencephaly and SBH are cortical malformations caused by deficient neuronal migration during embryogenesis. Lissencephaly refers to a "smooth brain" with absent gyri (agyria) or abnormally wide gyri (pachygyria). SBH refers to a band of heterotopic gray matter located just beneath the cortex and separated from it by a thin zone of normal white matter. MDS is characterized by lissencephaly, typical facial features, and severe neurologic abnormalities. ILS is characterized by lissencephaly and its direct sequelae: developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacies (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild to severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti/umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and GI anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors, including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Congenital Abnormality
15.

Lethal tight skin contracture syndrome

Restrictive dermopathy is a rare, lethal genodermatosis with characteristic manifestations that are easily recognizable at birth: thin, tightly adherent translucent skin with erosions at flexure sites, superficial vessels, typical facial dysmorphism, and generalized joint ankylosis. Prenatal signs can include intrauterine growth retardation, reduced fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and premature rupture of the membranes. Most infants die within the first week of life (summary by Smigiel et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98356
Concept ID:
C0406585
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Classic infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with developmental regression, hypotonia, progressive psychomotor delay, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment typically result in death during the first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability or ataxia (as in the classic form) or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism presents with subacute onset of dystonia-parkinsonism in late adolescence/early adulthood. Other findings are eye movement abnormalities, pyramidal tract signs, and marked cognitive decline. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Acrocallosal syndrome, Schinzel type

Classic Joubert syndrome is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS) . Hypotonia. Developmental delays . Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. The designation Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) is used to describe individuals with JS who have additional findings including retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162915
Concept ID:
C0796147
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Aarskog syndrome

Aarskog-Scott syndrome, also known as faciogenital dysplasia, is an X-linked disorder characterized by short stature, hypertelorism, shawl scrotum, and brachydactyly, although there is wide phenotypic variability and other features, such as joint hyperextensibility, short nose, widow's peak, and inguinal hernia, may also occur. Most patients do not have mental retardation, but some may have neurobehavioral features. Carrier females may present with subtle features, such as widow's peak or short stature (summary by Orrico et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Cutis laxa with osteodystrophy

ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa, also known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2A (ARCL2A), spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes Debré-type cutis laxa at the severe end and wrinkly skin syndrome at the mild end. Affected individuals have furrowing of the skin of the whole body that improves with time. They may have other evidence of a generalized connective disorder, including enlarged anterior fontanelle in infancy, congenital dislocation of the hips, inguinal hernias, and high myopia. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are present and are associated with severe developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82795
Concept ID:
C0268355
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Achondrogenesis type 2

Achondrogenesis type II is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. This form is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality

Display Settings:

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...