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Neurological speech impairment

MedGen UID:
446437
Concept ID:
CN001964
Finding
Synonyms: Speech disorder; Speech impairment; Speech impediment
 
HPO: HP:0002167

Conditions with this feature

Achondroplasia
MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common process resulting in disproportionate small stature. Affected individuals have short arms and legs, a large head, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion (formerly known as midface hypoplasia). In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy.
Aortic Arch Syndromes
MedGen UID:
1616
Concept ID:
C0003490
Disease or Syndrome
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
Supravalvar aortic stenosis
MedGen UID:
2001
Concept ID:
C0003499
Disease or Syndrome
Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a heart defect that develops before birth. This defect is a narrowing (stenosis) of the large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body (the aorta). The condition is described as supravalvular because the section of the aorta that is narrowed is located just above the valve that connects the aorta with the heart (the aortic valve). Some people with SVAS also have defects in other blood vessels, most commonly stenosis of the artery from the heart to the lungs (the pulmonary artery). An abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) can often be heard during a chest exam. If SVAS is not treated, the aortic narrowing can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and ultimately heart failure. The severity of SVAS varies considerably, even among family members. Some affected individuals die in infancy, while others never experience symptoms of the disorder.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
MedGen UID:
2562
Concept ID:
C0004903
Congenital Abnormality
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a growth disorder characterized by macrosomia, macroglossia, visceromegaly, embryonal tumors (e.g., Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), omphalocele, neonatal hypoglycemia, ear creases/pits, adrenocortical cytomegaly, and renal abnormalities (e.g., medullary dysplasia, nephrocalcinosis, medullary sponge kidney, and nephromegaly). Early death may occur from complications of prematurity, hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, macroglossia, or tumors. However, the previously reported mortality of 20% is likely an overestimate given better recognition of the disorder along with enhanced treatment options. Macroglossia and macrosomia are generally present at birth but may have postnatal onset. Growth rate slows around age seven to eight years. Hemihyperplasia may affect segmental regions of the body or selected organs and tissues.
Diaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
4268
Concept ID:
C0011989
Congenital Abnormality
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is characterized by hyperostosis of the long bones and the skull, proximal muscle weakness, severe limb pain, a wide-based, waddling gait, and joint contractures. Facial features such as frontal bossing, enlargement of the mandible, proptosis, and cranial nerve impingement resulting in facial palsy are seen in severely affected individuals later in life.
Fragile X syndrome
MedGen UID:
8912
Concept ID:
C0016667
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1-related disorders include fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function mutation and is nearly always characterized by moderate intellectual disability in affected males and mild intellectual disability in affected females. Because FMR1 mutations are complex alterations involving non-classic gene-disrupting alterations (trinucleotide repeat expansion) and abnormal gene methylation, affected individuals occasionally have an atypical presentation with an IQ above 70, the traditional demarcation denoting intellectual disability (previously referred to as mental retardation). Males with an FMR1 full mutation accompanied by aberrant methylation may have a characteristic appearance (large head, long face, prominent forehead and chin, protruding ears), connective tissue findings (joint laxity), and large testes after puberty. Behavioral abnormalities, sometimes including autism spectrum disorder, are common. FXTAS occurs in males (and some females) who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. FMR1-related POI (age at cessation of menses <40 years) occurs in approximately 20% of females who have an FMR1 premutation.
Glycogen storage disease, type II
MedGen UID:
5340
Concept ID:
C0017921
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II), or Pompe disease, is classified by age of onset, organ involvement, severity, and rate of progression. Classic infantile-onset Pompe disease may be apparent in utero but more often presents in the first two months of life with hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, cardiomegaly and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and hearing loss. Without treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), classic infantile-onset Pompe disease commonly results in death in the first year of life from progressive left ventricular outflow obstruction. The non-classic variant of infantile-onset Pompe disease usually presents within the first year of life with motor delays and/or slowly progressive muscle weakness, typically resulting in death from ventilatory failure in early childhood. Cardiomegaly can be seen, but heart disease is not a major source of morbidity. Late-onset (i.e., childhood, juvenile, and adult-onset) Pompe disease is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency; clinically significant cardiac involvement is uncommon in the late-onset form.
Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, or NBIA (formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). PKAN is characterized by progressive dystonia and basal ganglia iron deposition with onset that usually occurs before age ten years. Commonly associated features include dysarthria, rigidity, and pigmentary retinopathy. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have an 'atypical' presentation with later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
MedGen UID:
42458
Concept ID:
C0019562
Disease or Syndrome
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts and neuroendocrine tumors; endolymphatic sac tumors; and epididymal and broad ligament cysts. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas may be associated with headache, vomiting, gait disturbances, or ataxia. Spinal hemangioblastomas and related syrinx usually present with pain. Sensory and motor loss may develop with cord compression. Retinal hemangioblastomas may be the initial manifestation of VHL disease and can cause vision loss. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in about 70% of individuals with VHL and is the leading cause of mortality. Pheochromocytomas can be asymptomatic but may cause sustained or episodic hypertension. Pancreatic lesions often remain asymptomatic and rarely cause endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Endolymphatic sac tumors can cause hearing loss of varying severity, which can be a presenting symptom. Cysts of the epididymis are relatively common. They rarely cause problems, unless bilateral, in which case they may result in infertility.
Lipomucopolysaccharidosis
MedGen UID:
44174
Concept ID:
C0023806
Disease or Syndrome
Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome
MedGen UID:
6222
Concept ID:
C0024814
Disease or Syndrome
Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is characterized by cerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, early-onset (not necessarily congenital) cataracts, mild to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, and muscle weakness. Additional features are short stature and various skeletal abnormalities including scoliosis. Children with MSS usually present with muscular hypotonia in early infancy; distal and proximal muscular weakness is noticed during the first decade of life. Later, cerebellar findings of truncal ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria become apparent. Motor function worsens progressively for some years, then stabilizes at an unpredictable age and degree of severity. Cataracts can develop rapidly and typically require lens extraction in the first decade of life. Although many adults are severely handicapped, life span in MSS appears to be near normal.
Lowe syndrome
MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, aminoaciduria, low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. Fanconi syndrome is usually not clinically apparent in the first few months of life, but symptoms may appear by age six to 12 months. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease after age ten to 20 years.
Rett's disorder
MedGen UID:
48441
Concept ID:
C0035372
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2-related disorders in females include classic Rett syndrome, variant Rett syndrome, and mild learning disabilities. A MECP2 mutation in a male is presumed to most often be lethal; phenotypes in rare surviving males are primarily severe neonatal encephalopathy and manic-depressive psychosis, pyramidal signs, Parkinsonian, and macro-orchidism (PPM-X syndrome). Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Atypical Rett syndrome is observed increasingly as MECP2 mutations are identified in individuals previously diagnosed with: clinically suspected but molecularly unconfirmed Angelman syndrome; intellectual disability with spasticity or tremor; mild learning disability; or (rarely) autism. Severe neonatal encephalopathy resulting in death before age two years is the most common phenotype observed in affected males.
Schwartz Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
19892
Concept ID:
C0036391
Congenital Abnormality
A syndrome of short stature; generalized myotonia with contractures of major joints, microstomia, and muscle rigidity; ocular anomalies, mainly blepharophimosis; and characteristic facies marked by pinched or frozen smile puckered lips. Some degree of mental retardation occurs in about 25% of patients. The affected children usually appear normal at birth and the symptoms become recognizable at 1 to 3 years of age. Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal hazard during anesthesia.
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
MedGen UID:
11443
Concept ID:
C0037231
Disease or Syndrome
Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is an autosomal recessive, early childhood-onset disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spastic paraparesis, macular dystrophy, and leukoencephalopathy. It is caused by deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (summary by Lossos et al., 2006).
Sturge-Weber syndrome
MedGen UID:
21361
Concept ID:
C0038505
Congenital Abnormality
Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by an intracranial vascular anomaly, leptomeningeal angiomatosis, most often involving the occipital and posterior parietal lobes. The most common symptoms and signs are facial cutaneous vascular malformations (port-wine stains), seizures, and glaucoma. Stasis results in ischemia underlying the leptomeningeal angiomatosis, leading to calcification and laminar cortical necrosis. The clinical course is highly variable and some children experience intractable seizures, mental retardation, and recurrent stroke-like episodes (review by Thomas-Sohl et al., 2004).
Takayasu arteritis
MedGen UID:
21458
Concept ID:
C0039263
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.
X-linked ichthyosis with steryl-sulfatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
86937
Concept ID:
C0079588
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyosis is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of the skin. See, e.g., autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris (146700), which is caused by mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG; 135940). Ichthyosis can also be observed in multiple sulfatase deficiency (272200) (Shapiro, 1977). X-linked ichthyosis is fundamentally the same disorder as placental steroid sulfatase deficiency, which is often first noted in the pregnant mother of affected males by decreased estrogen or delayed progression of parturition (Alperin and Shapiro, 1997). This is thus an example of affinity ('lumping') of phenotypes thought previously to be separate, the opposite of genetic heterogeneity. Schnyder (1970) gave a useful classification of the inherited ichthyoses. Hernandez-Martin et al. (1999) provided a comprehensive review of X-linked ichthyosis. They pointed out that among all genetic disorders X-linked ichthyosis shows one of the highest ratios of chromosomal deletions; complete deletion has been found in up to 90% of patients.
Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and a unique behavior with an inappropriate happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year, and it can take several years before the correct clinical diagnosis is obvious.
Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke
MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
MELAS syndrome, comprising mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with a variable clinical phenotype. The disorder is accompanied by features of central nervous system involvement, including seizures, hemiparesis, hemianopsia, cortical blindness, and episodic vomiting (Pavlakis et al., 1984; Montagna et al., 1988). Other mitochondrial encephalomyopathies include Leigh syndrome (LS; 256000), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS; 530000), MERRF syndrome (545000), and Leber optic atrophy (535000).
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to failure to thrive in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Histidinemia
MedGen UID:
113135
Concept ID:
C0220992
Disease or Syndrome
Histidinemia is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by increased levels of histidine in blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, and decreased levels of the metabolite urocanic acid in blood, urine, and skin cells. Although histidinemia was originally associated with mental retardation and speech defects, it is generally considered to be a benign disorder (Levy et al., 2001). However, it is possible that histidinemia may be a risk factor for developmental disorders in certain individuals under specific circumstances, such as perinatal events (Ishikawa, 1987).
Cholestanol storage disease
MedGen UID:
116041
Concept ID:
C0238052
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease characterized by infantile-onset diarrhea, childhood-onset cataract, adolescent- to young adult-onset tendon xanthomas, and adult-onset progressive neurologic dysfunction (dementia, psychiatric disturbances, pyramidal and/or cerebellar signs, dystonia, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures). Chronic diarrhea from infancy may be the earliest clinical manifestation. In approximately 75% of affected individuals, cataracts are the first finding, often appearing in the first decade of life. Xanthomas appear in the second or third decade; they occur on the Achilles tendon, the extensor tendons of the elbow and hand, the patellar tendon, and the neck tendons. Xanthomas have been reported in the lung, bones, and central nervous system. Some individuals show mental impairment from early infancy, whereas the majority have normal or only slightly subnormal intellectual function until puberty; dementia with slow deterioration in intellectual abilities occurs in the 20s in more than 50% of individuals. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as behavioral changes, hallucinations, agitation, aggression, depression, and suicide attempts may be prominent. Pyramidal signs (i.e., spasticity) and/or cerebellar signs almost invariably become evident between ages 20 and 30 years.
Ganglioside sialidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
68663
Concept ID:
C0238286
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis IV is characterized by severe psychomotor delay evident by the end of the first year of life and slowly progressive visual impairment during the first decade as a result of a combination of corneal clouding and retinal degeneration. By the end of the first decade of life and certainly by their early teens, all individuals with typical mucolipidosis IV have severe visual impairment as a result of retinal degeneration. Neurodegeneration is thought to occur in no more than 15% of individuals. About 5% of individuals have atypical mucolipidosis IV, often manifest as less severe psychomotor retardation and/or eye findings. About 70% of individuals with mucolipidosis IV are of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage.
Isaac's syndrome
MedGen UID:
116151
Concept ID:
C0242287
Disease or Syndrome
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
Cohen syndrome
MedGen UID:
78539
Concept ID:
C0265223
Disease or Syndrome
Cohen syndrome is characterized by failure to thrive in infancy and childhood; truncal obesity in the teen years; early-onset hypotonia and developmental delays; microcephaly developing during the first year of life; moderate to profound psychomotor retardation; progressive retinochoroidal dystrophy and high myopia; neutropenia in many with recurrent infections and aphthous ulcers in some; a cheerful disposition; joint hypermobility; and characteristic facial features.
Goldenhar syndrome
MedGen UID:
75554
Concept ID:
C0265240
Congenital Abnormality
Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) includes a spectrum of malformations primarily involving structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Findings include facial asymmetry resulting from maxillary and/or mandibular hypoplasia; preauricular or facial tags; ear malformations that can include microtia (hypoplasia of the external ear), anotia (absence of the external ear), or aural atresia (absence of the external ear canal); and hearing loss. Severity can range from subtle facial asymmetry with a small skin tag in front of an otherwise normal-appearing ear to bilateral involvement (typically asymmetric), microtia/anotia with atresia of the ear canals, microphthalmia, and respiratory compromise from severe mandibular hypoplasia. Other craniofacial malformations including cleft lip and/or palate can be seen. Non-craniofacial malformations, especially vertebral, cardiac, and limb, can be seen.
Nager syndrome
MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Congenital Abnormality
Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hyoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distingushing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012).
Mietens syndrome
MedGen UID:
82695
Concept ID:
C0265249
Disease or Syndrome
Mild mental deficiency with growth retardation, ocular defects, and limb abnormalities.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Intellect ranges from normal to profoundly impaired in heterozygous females. The facial appearance is characteristic in the affected, older male child or adult. The hands are short, soft, and fleshy, often with remarkably hyperextensible fingers that taper from wide (proximally) to narrow with small terminal phalanges and nails. Males are consistently below the third centile in height. Microcephaly is common. Cardiac abnormalities may be present and can contribute to premature death. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Life span may be reduced.
Acromesomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
120526
Concept ID:
C0265278
Disease or Syndrome
Turcot syndrome
MedGen UID:
78553
Concept ID:
C0265325
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome, caused by a germline mutation (i.e. pathogenic variant in the germline) in a mismatch repair gene and associated with tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI), is characterized by an increased risk for colon cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following life time risks for cancer are seen: 52%-82% for colorectal cancer (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years); 25%-60% for endometrial cancer in women (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years); 6% to 13% for gastric cancer (mean age at diagnosis 56 years); and 4%-12% for ovarian cancer (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; approximately 30% are diagnosed before age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates.
Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome
MedGen UID:
78554
Concept ID:
C0265326
Congenital Abnormality
The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer, although not well defined, may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS.
Fetal trimethadione syndrome
MedGen UID:
120538
Concept ID:
C0265373
Congenital Abnormality
A pattern of abnormalities in infants born to epileptic mothers who were treated during their pregnancies with trimethadione anticonvulsant drugs. The abnormalities include developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphism (midfacial flattening, V-shaped eyebrows, short nose, synophrys, malformed ears, and strabismus), cardiovascular abnormalities, absent kidney and ureter, omphalocele, meningocele, and other defects.
Deficiency of UDPglucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
MedGen UID:
82777
Concept ID:
C0268151
Disease or Syndrome
The term galactosemia refers to disorders of galactose metabolism that include classic galactosemia, clinical variant galactosemia, and biochemical variant galactosemia. This GeneReview focuses on: Classic galactosemia, which can result in life-threatening complications including feeding problems, failure to thrive, hepatocellular damage, bleeding, and E. coli sepsis in untreated infants. If a lactose-restricted diet is provided during the first ten days of life, the neonatal signs usually quickly resolve and the complications of liver failure, sepsis, and neonatal death are prevented; however, despite adequate treatment from an early age, children with classic galactosemia remain at increased risk for developmental delays, speech problems (termed childhood apraxia of speech and dysarthria), and abnormalities of motor function. Almost all females with classic galactosemia manifest premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Clinical variant galactosemia, which can result in life-threatening complications including feeding problems, failure to thrive, hepatocellular damage including cirrhosis and bleeding in untreated infants. This is exemplified by the disease that occurs in African Americans and native Africans in South Africa. Persons with clinical variant galactosemia may be missed with newborn screening (NBS) as the hypergalactosemia is not as marked as in classic galactosemia and breath testing is normal. If a lactose-restricted diet is provided during the first ten days of life, the severe acute neonatal complications are usually prevented. African Americans with clinical variant galactosemia and adequate early treatment do not appear to be at risk for long-term complications including POI.
Aspartylglycosaminuria
MedGen UID:
78649
Concept ID:
C0268225
Disease or Syndrome
Aspartylglucosaminuria is a severe autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that involves the central nervous system and causes skeletal abnormalities as well as connective tissue lesions. The most characteristic feature is progressive mental retardation. The disorder is caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glycosylasparaginase, which results in body fluid and tissue accumulation of a series of glycoasparagines, i.e., glycoconjugates with an aspartylglucosamine moiety at the reducing end. AGU belongs to the group of disorders commonly referred to as the Finnish disease heritage (summary by Mononen et al., 1993 and Arvio and Arvio, 2002).
Sialidosis, type II
MedGen UID:
120621
Concept ID:
C0268226
Disease or Syndrome
Sialidosis is characterized by the progressive lysosomal storage of sialidated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides caused by a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. Common to the sialidoses is the accumulation and/or excretion of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) covalently linked ('bound') to a variety of oligosaccharides and/or glycoproteins. The sialidoses are distinct from the sialurias in which there is storage and excretion of 'free' sialic acid, rather than 'bound' sialic acid; neuraminidase activity in sialuria is normal or elevated. Salla disease (604369) is a form of 'free' sialic acid disease. Classification Lowden and O'Brien (1979) provided a logical nosology of neuraminidase deficiency into sialidosis type I and type II. Type I is the milder form, also known as the 'normosomatic' type or the cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome. Sialidosis type II is the more severe form with an earlier onset, and is also known as the 'dysmorphic' type. Type II has been subdivided into juvenile and infantile forms. Other terms for sialidosis type II are mucolipidosis I and lipomucopolysaccharidosis.
Neuraminidase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
120622
Concept ID:
C0268228
Disease or Syndrome
Subacute neuronopathic Gaucher's disease
MedGen UID:
78653
Concept ID:
C0268251
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, procollagen proteinase deficient
MedGen UID:
78662
Concept ID:
C0268345
Disease or Syndrome
EDS type VII is distinguished from the other types of EDS by the frequency of congenital hip dislocation and extreme joint laxity with recurrent joint subluxations and minimal skin involvement (Byers et al., 1997; Giunta et al., 2008). Beighton et al. (1998) reported on a revised nosology of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, designated the Villefranche classification. Major and minor diagnostic criteria were defined for each type and complemented whenever possible with laboratory findings. Six main descriptive types were substituted for earlier types numbered with Roman numerals: classic type (EDS I and II), hypermobility type (EDS III), vascular type (EDS IV), kyphoscoliosis type (EDS VI), arthrochalasia type (EDS VIIA and VIIB), and dermatosparaxis type (EDS VIIC). Six other forms were listed, including a category of 'unspecified forms.'
Deficiency of glycerol kinase
MedGen UID:
82803
Concept ID:
C0268418
Disease or Syndrome
Francke et al. (1987) noted that there are 3 clinically distinct forms of glycerol kinase deficiency: infantile, juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is associated with severe developmental delay, and those with the adult form have no symptoms and are often detected fortuitously. The infantile form of GK deficiency, or the 'GK complex,' results from the Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome (300679) with congenital adrenal hypoplasia (300200) and/or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD; 310200), whereas the juvenile and adult forms have isolated GK deficiency (Walker et al., 1996).
Tyrosinemia type 2
MedGen UID:
75687
Concept ID:
C0268487
Disease or Syndrome
Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by keratitis, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, mental retardation, and elevated serum tyrosine levels. The disorder is caused by deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (Natt et al., 1992).
Arginase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78688
Concept ID:
C0268548
Disease or Syndrome
Arginase deficiency in untreated individuals is characterized by episodic hyperammonemia of variable degree that is infrequently severe enough to be life threatening or to cause death. Most commonly, birth and early childhood are normal. Untreated individuals have slowing of linear growth at age one to three years, followed by development of spasticity, plateauing of cognitive development, and subsequent loss of developmental milestones. If untreated, arginase deficiency usually progresses to severe spasticity, loss of ambulation, complete loss of bowel and bladder control, and severe intellectual disability. Seizures are common and are usually controlled easily.
Glutaric aciduria, type 1
MedGen UID:
124337
Concept ID:
C0268595
Disease or Syndrome
The term "organic acidemia" or "organic aciduria" (OA) applies to a group of disorders characterized by the excretion of non-amino organic acids in urine. Most organic acidemias result from dysfunction of a specific step in amino acid catabolism, usually the result of deficient enzyme activity. The majority of the classic organic acid disorders are caused by abnormal amino acid catabolism of branched-chain amino acids or lysine. They include maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, isovaleric acidemia, biotin-unresponsive 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency, ketothiolase deficiency, and glutaricacidemia type I (GA I). A neonate affected with an OA is usually well at birth and for the first few days of life. The usual clinical presentation is that of toxic encephalopathy and includes vomiting, poor feeding, neurologic symptoms such as seizures and abnormal tone, and lethargy progressing to coma. Outcome is enhanced by diagnosis and treatment in the first ten days of life. In the older child or adolescent, variant forms of the OAs can present as loss of intellectual function, ataxia or other focal neurologic signs, Reye syndrome, recurrent ketoacidosis, or psychiatric symptoms.
Alexander's disease
MedGen UID:
78724
Concept ID:
C0270726
Disease or Syndrome
Alexander disease is a disorder of cortical white matter that predominantly affects infants and children and usually results in death within ten years after onset. The infantile form comprises about 51% of affected individuals, the juvenile form about 23%, and the adult form about 24%. A neonatal form is also recognized. The neonatal form leads to severe disability or death within two years. Characteristics include seizures, hydrocephalus, severe motor and intellectual disability, severe white-matter abnormalities, involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, and elevated CSF protein concentration. The infantile form presents in the first two years of life, typically with progressive psychomotor retardation with loss of developmental milestones, megalencephaly and frontal bossing, seizures, hyperreflexia and pyramidal signs, ataxia, and hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis. Affected children survive weeks to several years. The juvenile form usually presents between ages four and ten years, occasionally in the mid-teens. Findings can include bulbar/pseudobulbar signs, ataxia, gradual loss of intellectual function, seizures, megalencephaly, and breathing problems. Survival ranges from the early teens to the 20s-30s. The adult form is the most variable.
Pendred's syndrome
MedGen UID:
82890
Concept ID:
C0271829
Congenital Abnormality
Pendred syndrome (PDS) and DFNB4 comprise a phenotypic spectrum of hearing loss with or without other findings. Pendred syndrome is characterized by: severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment that is usually congenital (or prelingual) and non-progressive; vestibular dysfunction; temporal bone abnormalities; and development of euthyroid goiter in late childhood to early adulthood. Variability of findings is considerable, even within the same family. DFNB4 is characterized by nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). Thyroid defects are not seen in DFNB4.
Idiopathic livedo reticularis with systemic involvement
MedGen UID:
76449
Concept ID:
C0282492
Disease or Syndrome
Sneddon syndrome is a noninflammatory arteriopathy characterized by livedo reticularis and cerebrovascular disease. Livedo reticularis occurs also with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and central thrombocythemia, any one of which may be accompanied by cerebrovascular accidents (Bruyn et al., 1987).
Fumarase deficiency
MedGen UID:
87458
Concept ID:
C0342770
Disease or Syndrome
Fumarate hydratase deficiency results in severe neonatal and early infantile encephalopathy that is characterized by poor feeding, failure to thrive, hypotonia, lethargy, and seizures. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, and widely spaced eyes. Many affected individuals are microcephalic. A spectrum of brain abnormalities are seen on magnetic resonance imaging, including cerebral atrophy, enlarged ventricles and generous extra-axial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces, delayed myelination for age, thinning of the corpus callosum, and an abnormally small brain stem. Brain malformations including bilateral polymicrogyria and absence of the corpus callosum can also be observed. Development is severely affected: most affected individuals are non-verbal and non-ambulatory, and many die during early childhood. Less severely affected individuals with moderate cognitive impairment and long-term survival have been reported.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency
MedGen UID:
87461
Concept ID:
C0342789
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Clinical symptoms usually occur in an individual with a concurrent febrile or gastrointestinal illness when energy demands are increased; onset of symptoms is usually rapid. The three recognized phenotypes are hepatic encephalopathy, in which individuals (typically children) present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and sudden onset of liver failure; adult-onset myopathy, seen in one individual of Inuit origin; and acute fatty liver of pregnancy, in which the fetus is homozygous for a mutation in CPT1A that causes CPT1A deficiency. Between episodes of hepatic encephalopathy, individuals appear developmentally and cognitively normal unless previous metabolic decompensation has resulted in neurologic damage.
Beta-D-mannosidosis
MedGen UID:
87462
Concept ID:
C0342849
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-mannosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease of glycoprotein catabolism caused by a deficiency of lysosomal beta-mannosidase activity. The most severely affected patients show developmental delay and mental retardation, but there are differing levels of severity and some patients may have comparatively mild disease (Bedilu et al., 2002) The disorder was first described in goats (Jones and Dawson, 1981), who have a more severe neurodegenerative disorder than that seen in humans.
Flynn-Aird syndrome
MedGen UID:
91009
Concept ID:
C0343108
Congenital Abnormality
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Congenital Abnormality
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical [90%] or infra- or supra-auricular [60%]) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous “hemangiomatous” lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7(th) cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Choreoacanthocytosis
MedGen UID:
98277
Concept ID:
C0393576
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is characterized by a progressive movement disorder, cognitive and behavior changes, a myopathy that can be subclinical, and chronic hyperCKemia in serum. Although the disorder is named for acanthocytosis of the red blood cells, this feature is variable. The movement disorder is mostly limb chorea, but some individuals present with parkinsonism. Dystonia is common and affects the oral region and especially the tongue, causing dysarthria and serious dysphagia with resultant weight loss. Habitual tongue and lip biting are characteristic, as well as tongue protrusion dystonia. Progressive cognitive and behavioral changes resemble those in a frontal lobe syndrome. Seizures are observed in almost half of affected individuals and can be the initial manifestation. Myopathy results in progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness. Mean age of onset in ChAc is about 30 years, although ChAc can develop as early as the first decade or as late as the seventh decade. It runs a chronic progressive course and may lead to major disability within a few years. Life expectancy is reduced, with age of death ranging from 28 to 61 years.
X-linked hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy
MedGen UID:
98290
Concept ID:
C0393808
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy X type 1 (CMTX1) is characterized by a moderate to severe motor and sensory neuropathy in affected males and usually mild to no symptoms in carrier females. Sensorineural deafness and central nervous system symptoms also occur in some families.
Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis
MedGen UID:
140807
Concept ID:
C0406612
Congenital Abnormality
Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by ocular anomalies, skin lesions, and central nervous system anomalies (Moog et al., 2007).
Salamon's syndrome
MedGen UID:
98033
Concept ID:
C0406718
Congenital Abnormality
Aniridia, cerebellar ataxia, and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
96563
Concept ID:
C0431401
Disease or Syndrome
Gillespie syndrome is a disorder that involves eye abnormalities, problems with balance and coordinating movements (ataxia), and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Gillespie syndrome is characterized by aniridia, which is the absence of the colored part of the eye (the iris). In most affected individuals, only part of the iris is missing (partial aniridia) in both eyes, but in some affected individuals, partial aniridia affects only one eye, or the entire iris is missing (complete aniridia) in one or both eyes. The absence of all or part of the iris can cause blurry vision (reduced visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). Rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) can also occur in Gillespie syndrome. The balance and movement problems in Gillespie syndrome result from underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of a part of the brain called the cerebellum. This abnormality can cause delayed development of motor skills such as walking. In addition, difficulty controlling the muscles in the mouth can lead to delayed speech development. The difficulties with coordination generally become noticeable in early childhood when the individual is learning these skills. People with Gillespie syndrome usually continue to have an unsteady gait and speech problems. However, the problems do not get worse over time, and in some cases they improve slightly. Other features of Gillespie syndrome can include abnormalities in the bones of the spine (vertebrae) and malformations of the heart.
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis is an X-linked dominant sclerosing bone dysplasia that presents in females with macrocephaly, cleft palate, mild learning disabilities, sclerosis of the long bones and skull, and longitudinal striations visible on radiographs of the long bones, pelvis, and scapulae (Jenkins et al., 2009). In males, the disorder is usually associated with fetal or neonatal lethality. Occasional surviving males have, in addition to hyperostosis, cardiac, intestinal, and genitourinary malformations. Osteosclerosis in the cranial and facial bones leads to disfigurement and to disability due to pressure on cranial nerves, e.g., deafness. Osteopathia striata is a frequent feature of focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH; 305600). Although early reports of familial cases of this disorder appeared to suggest autosomal dominant inheritance (see, e.g., Horan and Beighton, 1978 and Konig et al., 1996), reappraisal of the literature (Behninger and Rott, 2000; Rott et al., 2003) and the finding of a molecular basis for the disorder by Jenkins et al. (2009) confirms that the inheritance pattern is X-linked dominant. Affected males who survive have a more severe phenotype than affected females, and sporadic male cases may result from somatic mosaicism (Behninger and Rott, 2000).
Infantile hypercalcemia
MedGen UID:
99194
Concept ID:
C0475732
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital facial asymmetry
MedGen UID:
107801
Concept ID:
C0546952
Congenital Abnormality
Café-au-lait macules with pulmonary stenosis
MedGen UID:
107817
Concept ID:
C0553586
Disease or Syndrome
Watson syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by pulmonic stenosis, cafe-au-lait spots, decreased intellectual ability (Watson, 1967), and short stature (Partington et al., 1985). Most affected individuals have relative macrocephaly and Lisch nodules and about one-third of those affected have neurofibroma (Allanson et al., 1991).
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 3
MedGen UID:
108273
Concept ID:
C0574084
Disease or Syndrome
OPA3-related 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is characterized by optic atrophy and/or choreoathetoid movement disorder with onset before age ten years. Optic atrophy is associated with progressive, decreased visual acuity within the first years of life, sometimes associated with infantile-onset horizontal nystagmus. Most individuals have chorea, often severe enough to restrict ambulation. Some are confined to a wheelchair from an early age. Although most individuals develop spastic paraparesis, mild ataxia, and occasional mild cognitive deficit in their second decade, the course of the disease is relatively stable.
Aglossia-adactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
108567
Concept ID:
C0595985
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoglossia-hypodactyly syndrome is characterized by a hypoplastic mandible, absence of the lower incisors, hypoglossia, and a variable degree of absence of the digits and limbs. Intelligence is normal (Hall, 1971). Hall (1971) classified what he termed the 'syndromes of oromandicular and limb hypogenesis,' which comprised a range of disorders with hypoglossia in common. Type I included hypoglossia and aglossia in isolation. Type II included hypoglossia with hypomelia/ hypodactylia. Type III included glossopalatine ankylosis with hypoglossia or hypoglossia and hypomelia/hypodactyly. Type IV included intraoral bands with fusion with hypoglossia or hypoglossia and hypomelia/hypodactyly. Type V included several syndromes, such as Hanhart syndrome, Pierre Robin syndrome (261800), Moebius syndrome (157900), and amniotic band syndrome (217100). Hall (1971) noted that complete aglossia or adactylia had not been reported, and suggested that 'hypoglossia-hypodactylia' is a more accurate term. See also hypoglossia and situs inversus (612776).
Floating-Harbor syndrome
MedGen UID:
152667
Concept ID:
C0729582
Disease or Syndrome
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features; low birth weight, normal head circumference, and short stature; bone age delay that normalizes between ages six and 12 years; skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, clubbing, clinodactyly, short thumbs, prominent joints, clavicular abnormalities); severe receptive and expressive language impairment; hypernasality and high-pitched voice; and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Difficulties with temperament and behavior that are present in many children tend to improve in adulthood. Other features can include: hyperopia and/or strabismus; conductive hearing loss; seizures; gastroesophageal reflux; renal anomalies (e.g., hydronephrosis/renal pelviectasis, cysts, and/or agenesis) and genital anomalies (e.g., hypospadias and/or undescended testes).
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
199687
Concept ID:
C0751587
Disease or Syndrome
A familial, cerebral arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19q12, and characterized by the presence of granular deposits in small CEREBRAL ARTERIES producing ischemic STROKE; PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; and multiple subcortical infarcts (CEREBRAL INFARCTION). CADASIL is an acronym for Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. CADASIL differs from BINSWANGER DISEASE by the presence of MIGRAINE WITH AURA and usually by the lack of history of arterial HYPERTENSION. (From Bradley et al, Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2000, p1146)
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
MedGen UID:
156019
Concept ID:
C0752166
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Chromosome 9q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate to severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ around 70. Although most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed including heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy/febrile seizures, autistic-like features in childhood, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
Smith-Magenis syndrome
MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory integration issues are frequently noted. Children and adults typically have inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsivity, maladaptive behaviors including frequent outbursts/temper tantrums, attention seeking, disobedience, aggression, toileting difficulties, and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) including self-hitting, self-biting, and/or skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. The finger lick and page flipping ("lick and flip") behavior may be less prevalent than initially reported. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically between intellectual functioning and emotional maturity, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS.
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome
MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
MCT8-specific thyroid hormone cell-membrane transporter deficiency is characterized by severe cognitive deficiency, infantile hypotonia, diminished muscle mass and generalized muscle weakness, progressive spastic quadriplegia, joint contractures, and dystonic and/or athetoid movement with characteristic paroxysms or kinesigenic dyskinesias. Seizures occur in about 25% of cases. Most affected males never sit or walk independently or lose these abilities over time; most never speak or have severely dysarthric speech. Brain MRI obtained in the first few years of life shows transient delayed myelination, which improves by age four years. Although psychomotor findings observed in affected males do not occur in heterozygous females, the latter often have thyroid test abnormalities intermediate between affected and normal individuals.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked recessive, type 4
MedGen UID:
162891
Concept ID:
C0795910
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) hereditary neuropathy refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. The affected individual typically has distal muscle weakness and atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss, depressed tendon reflexes, and high-arched feet.
Chromosome 16-related alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
162892
Concept ID:
C0795917
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or ocular hypertelorism, small nose, tented upper lip, and prominent or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech.
Filippi syndrome
MedGen UID:
163197
Concept ID:
C0795940
Disease or Syndrome
A craniodigital syndrome characterized by unusual facial appearance with microcephaly, high frontal hairline, thin nose with deep epicanthal folds, and short palpebral fissures in association with cleft palate, digital anomalies, and developmental delay.
Fitzsimmons-Guilbert syndrome
MedGen UID:
163199
Concept ID:
C0795942
Disease or Syndrome
Fountain syndrome
MedGen UID:
208650
Concept ID:
C0795944
Disease or Syndrome
Coarse facies, mental retardation, hearing loss, and skeletal abnormalities are the major symptoms.
Spastic paraplegia 1
MedGen UID:
162894
Concept ID:
C0795953
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of L1 syndrome includes X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (HSAS), MASA syndrome (Mental retardation, Aphasia [delayed speech], Spastic paraplegia [shuffling gait], Adducted thumbs), SPG1 (X-linked complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia type 1), and X-linked complicated corpus callosum agenesis. Males with HSAS are born with severe hydrocephalus, adducted thumbs, and spasticity; intellectual disability is severe. In less severely affected males, hydrocephalus may be subclinically present and documented only because of developmental delay; intellectual disability ranges from mild (IQ: 50-70) to moderate (IQ: 30-50).
Mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
167093
Concept ID:
C0796003
Disease or Syndrome
The term 'X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome' comprises several syndromes previously reported separately. These include Juberg-Marsidi, Carpenter-Waziri, Holmes-Gang, and Smith-Fineman-Myers syndromes as well as 1 family with X-linked mental retardation with spastic paraplegia. All these syndromes were found to be caused by mutation in the XH2 gene and are characterized primarily by severe mental retardation, dysmorphic facies, and a highly skewed X-inactivation pattern in carrier women (Abidi et al., 2005). Other more variable features include hypogonadism, deafness, renal anomalies, and mild skeletal defects. X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X; 301040) is an allelic disorder with a similar phenotype with the addition of alpha-thalassemia and Hb H inclusion bodies in erythrocytes.
Laband syndrome
MedGen UID:
208656
Concept ID:
C0796013
Disease or Syndrome
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by gingival fibromatosis, dysplastic or absent nails, hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hirsutism, and abnormalities of the cartilage of the nose and/or ears (summary by Balasubramanian and Parker, 2010).
Reardon Wilson Cavanagh syndrome
MedGen UID:
208659
Concept ID:
C0796045
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia, deafness, mental retardation, and upper and lower neuron disease are the principal symptoms.
Microcephaly deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
163208
Concept ID:
C0796062
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of microcephaly, dysmorphic facies, deafness, and mental retardation.
Microcephaly cervical spine fusion anomalies
MedGen UID:
208663
Concept ID:
C0796066
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, retarded mental and growth development, characteristic facies, and cervical spine fusion.
Dwarfism, mental retardation and eye abnormality
MedGen UID:
208664
Concept ID:
C0796076
Disease or Syndrome
Delayed growth and mental development with ocular disorders.
Intellectual deficit Buenos-Aires type
MedGen UID:
167102
Concept ID:
C0796080
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of mental and physical retardation, cardiac and renal malformations, and peculiar facies.
Megalocornea mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
162904
Concept ID:
C0796086
Disease or Syndrome
Megalocornea and iris anomalies accompanied by facial and skeletal defects, slow psychomotor development, hypotonia, and seizures. Later reports classify megalocornea-mental retardation syndrome into several types: Type 1 Synonym: Neuhauser syndrome With iris hypoplasia and minor abnormalities. Type 2 With camptodactyly, scoliosis, and growth retardation. Type 3 Synonym: Verloes type With macrocephaly, hypotonia, and other minor anomalies but no hypoplasia of the irides. Type 4 With megalocephaly,obesity, and normal irides.
Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
163214
Concept ID:
C0796092
Disease or Syndrome
Orbital cysts and other eye defects, multiple cerebral anomalies, and focal dermal defects are the principal characteristics of this syndrome.
Mental retardation, congenital heart disease, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis and hypoplastic teeth
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of delayed development, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, dental hypoplasia, deafness, heart defect, cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia in males, and other abnormalities.
Pseudoprogeria syndrome
MedGen UID:
163218
Concept ID:
C0796125
Disease or Syndrome
A Hallermann-Streiff-like syndrome marked by presenile facies suggesting progeria, absent eyebrows and eyelashes, beaked nose, eye abnormalities, spinal defects, osteoporosis, and other disorders.
Dandy-Walker like malformation with atrioventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
163220
Concept ID:
C0796137
Disease or Syndrome
The 3C syndrome, also known as Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome, is a developmental malformation syndrome characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and cerebellar brain malformations. Facial features include prominent occiput, prominent forehead, low-set ears, downslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia. Cardiac defects can include septal defects and aortic stenosis, among others, and brain imaging shows Dandy-Walker malformation, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, posterior fossa cysts, and ventricular dilatation. Affected individuals have severe developmental delay (summary by Leonardi et al., 2001; Seidahmed et al., 2011).
CLEFT LIP/PALATE-ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
163221
Concept ID:
C0796139
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of anhidrosis-hypotrichosis, pili torti, microdontia, nail dysplasia, cleft lip/palate, urogenital abnormalities, and mental retardation.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacies (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild to severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti/umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and GI anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors, including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia X-linked
MedGen UID:
208672
Concept ID:
C0796172
Disease or Syndrome
Dwarfism, coarse facial features, sclerotic changes of the skull, contractures of the hips and knees, hyperextensibility of stubby and tapering fingers, kyphosis, scoliosis, pectus carinatum, ossification of the metaphyses of the long bones, flat vertebral crests, and delayed growth and mental development.
Parkinsonism, early onset with mental retardation
MedGen UID:
208674
Concept ID:
C0796195
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome of macrocephaly, persistent frontal lobe reflexes, cogwheel rigidity, postural changes, parkinsonian tremors, and mental retardation with occasional strabismus and seizures. The syndrome was named after Dr. Waisman who was the first one to observe the affected family.
Wieacker syndrome
MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia). Affected boys are born with severe contractures, known as arthrogryposis, and have delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and pes equinovarus. Those that survive infancy show mental retardation. Carrier females may have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013).
Wittwer syndrome
MedGen UID:
162921
Concept ID:
C0796202
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation with multiple congenital abnormalities consisting of craniofacial anomalies, delayed development, skeletal anomalies, urogenital anomalies, and deformed hands.
Worster Drought syndrome
MedGen UID:
163228
Concept ID:
C0796204
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome with variable expression characterized by suprabulbar paresis, selective weakness and impairment of movement of the orbicularis oris muscle, tongue, and soft palate, resulting in speech and swallowing difficulty.
Oculodentodigital dysplasia
MedGen UID:
167236
Concept ID:
C0812437
Disease or Syndrome
Oculodentodigital syndrome is characterized by a typical facial appearance and variable involvement of the eyes, dentition, and fingers. Characteristic facial features include a narrow, pinched nose with hypoplastic alae nasi, prominent columella and thin anteverted nares together with a narrow nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds giving the impression of hypertelorism. The teeth are usually small and carious. Typical eye findings include microphthalmia and microcornea. The characteristic digital malformation is complete syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers (syndactyly type III) but the third finger may be involved and associated camptodactyly is a common finding (summary by Judisch et al., 1979). Neurologic abnormalities are sometimes associated (Gutmann et al., 1991), and lymphedema has been reported in some patients with ODDD (Brice et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculodentodigital Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of ODDD (257850) is also caused by mutation in the GJA1 gene, but the majority of cases are autosomal dominant.
Deficiency of ferroxidase
MedGen UID:
168057
Concept ID:
C0878682
Disease or Syndrome
Aceruloplasminemia is characterized by iron accumulation in the brain and viscera. The clinical triad of retinal degeneration, diabetes mellitus (DM), and neurologic disease is seen in individuals ranging from age 25 years to older than 60 years. The neurologic findings of movement disorder (blepharospasm, grimacing, facial and neck dystonia, tremors, chorea) and ataxia (gait ataxia, dysarthria) correspond to regions of iron deposition in the brain. Individuals with aceruloplasminemia often present with anemia prior to onset of DM or obvious neurologic problems. Psychiatric disturbance includes depression and cognitive dysfunction in individuals older than age 50 years.
SHORT syndrome
MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
'Short,' the mnemonic designation for this syndrome, is an acronym: S = stature; H = hyperextensibility of joints or hernia (inguinal) or both; O = ocular depression; R = Rieger anomaly; T = teething delay. The name was given by Gorlin (1975), who described the syndrome in 2 brothers. Dyment et al. (2013) noted that the features listed in the acronym for SHORT syndrome do not capture the full range of the clinical phenotype, which can include a recognizable facial gestalt consisting of triangular facies, lack of facial fat, and hypoplastic nasal alae with overhanging columella, as well as near-universal partial lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, nephrocalcinosis, and hearing deficits. Notably, both developmental milestones and cognition are normal for individuals with SHORT syndrome.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
266127
Concept ID:
C1272305
Disease or Syndrome
CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is characterized by a history of migraine with aura (30%-40% of individuals), mid-adult (30s-60s) onset of cerebrovascular disease, mood disturbance, apathy, cognitive disturbance progressing to dementia, and diffuse white matter lesions and subcortical infarcts on neuroimaging.
Ichthyosis, cerebellar degeneration and hepatosplenomegaly
MedGen UID:
266150
Concept ID:
C1275088
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of beta-ureidopropionase
MedGen UID:
226944
Concept ID:
C1291512
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency is a very rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to a defect in pyrimidine degradation. Less than 10 patients have been reported, and the phenotype can range from severe neurologic involvement with mental retardation and seizures to normal neurologic development (Yaplito-Lee et al., 2008).
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by severe mental retardation, early-onset seizures, short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair (summary by Sousa et al., 2009).
Myelocerebellar disorder
MedGen UID:
230896
Concept ID:
C1327919
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic ataxia type 1
MedGen UID:
318554
Concept ID:
C1719788
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is a potassium channelopathy characterized by constant myokymia and dramatic episodes of spastic contractions of the skeletal muscles of the head, arms, and legs with loss of both motor coordination and balance. During attacks some individuals may experience vertigo, blurred vision, diplopia, nausea, headache, diaphoresis, clumsiness, stiffening of the body, dysarthric speech, and difficulty in breathing. EA1 is associated with an increased incidence of epilepsy. Other findings can include delayed motor development, cognitive disability, choreoathetosis, and carpal spasm. Onset is in childhood or early adolescence.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
316820
Concept ID:
C1829703
Pathologic Function
A rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the CPT1A gene. It is characterized by the presence of defective carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A which is involved in fatty acid oxidation. Signs and symptoms may be exacerbated during fasting and include hypoketotic hypoglycemia, increased levels of carnitine in the blood, hepatomegaly, seizures, and coma.
Chitty Hall Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
371330
Concept ID:
C1832438
Disease or Syndrome
Orofacial cleft 7
MedGen UID:
371589
Concept ID:
C1833538
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertryptophanemia, familial
MedGen UID:
322223
Concept ID:
C1833562
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharofacioskeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
371716
Concept ID:
C1834038
Disease or Syndrome
Schilbach-Rott syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, cleft palate, dysmorphic facies, and hypospadias in males. The phenotype is variable; mild mental retardation has been reported (summary by Shkalim et al., 2009).
Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
320318
Concept ID:
C1834304
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is characterized by sudden onset of severe, non-abating pain in the shoulder girdle and/or the upper limb and amyotrophy (muscle wasting or atrophy) that typically develops within two weeks of the onset of severe pain. Other sites may also be involved in an attack; sensory symptoms, present in the majority of affected individuals, can include hypoesthesia (decreased sensation) and paresthesias. Onset is typically in the second or third decade (median age 28 years). Although attacks appear to become less frequent with age, residual deficits accumulate with subsequent attacks. In some families, non-neurologic findings (characteristic craniofacial features, bifid uvula or cleft palate, short stature, and/or partial syndactyly of the fingers or toes) are present.
Continuous Muscle Fiber Activity, Hereditary
MedGen UID:
331775
Concept ID:
C1834559
Disease or Syndrome
Jankovic Rivera syndrome
MedGen UID:
371854
Concept ID:
C1834569
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by childhood onset of proximal muscle weakness and generalized muscular atrophy due to degeneration of spinal motor neurons, followed by the onset of myoclonic seizures. The disorder is progressive, and usually results in loss of ambulation and early death from respiratory insufficiency (summary by Zhou et al., 2012).
Myoclonus, cerebellar ataxia, and deafness
MedGen UID:
331780
Concept ID:
C1834579
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrorenodigital syndrome with limb malformations and triradiate acetabula
MedGen UID:
373053
Concept ID:
C1836287
Disease or Syndrome
Bulbo-spinal atrophy X-linked
MedGen UID:
333282
Concept ID:
C1839259
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a gradually progressive neuromuscular disorder in which degeneration of lower motor neurons results in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculations. SBMA occurs only in males. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity.
Spastic paraplegia 2
MedGen UID:
374177
Concept ID:
C1839264
Disease or Syndrome
PLP1-related disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Female carriers may manifest mild to moderate signs of the disease.
Rett Syndrome, Preserved Speech Variant
MedGen UID:
374197
Concept ID:
C1839332
Disease or Syndrome
Gout, PRPS-Related
MedGen UID:
374232
Concept ID:
C1839469
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked recessive, type 5
MedGen UID:
374254
Concept ID:
C1839566
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) hereditary neuropathy refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. The affected individual typically has distal muscle weakness and atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss, depressed tendon reflexes, and high-arched feet.
Prieto X-linked mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
374294
Concept ID:
C1839730
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation syndrome with facial abnormalities, subcortical cerebral atrophy, defective tooth development, skin dimples at the lower back, lower limb defects, clinodactyly, luxation of the patella, and eye abnormalities.
Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
333393
Concept ID:
C1839736
Disease or Syndrome
WTS is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, hypogonadism, short stature, and truncal obesity. Affected females have a milder phenotype than affected males (summary by Harakalova et al., 2012).
Mental retardation and psoriasis
MedGen UID:
333408
Concept ID:
C1839801
Disease or Syndrome
Hairy elbows
MedGen UID:
374773
Concept ID:
C1841696
Disease or Syndrome
Hairy elbows is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis. The lanugo type of hair usually appears in infancy, becomes coarser during early childhood, and regresses at adolescence (summary by Visser et al., 2002).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
1p36 deletion syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial features consisting of straight eyebrows, deeply set eyes, midface retrusion, wide and depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, pointed chin, large, late-closing anterior fontanel (77%), microbrachycephaly (65%), epicanthal folds (50%), and posteriorly rotated, low-set, abnormal ears. Other characteristic findings include brachy/camptodactyly and short feet. Developmental delay/intellectual disability of variable degree are present in all, and hypotonia in 95%. Seizures occur in 44%-58% of affected individuals. Other findings include structural brain abnormalities (88%), congenital heart defects (71%), eye/vision problems (52%), hearing loss (47%), skeletal anomalies (41%), abnormalities of the external genitalia (25%), and renal abnormalities (22%).
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked recessive, type 3
MedGen UID:
375530
Concept ID:
C1844865
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) hereditary neuropathy refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. The affected individual typically has distal muscle weakness and atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss, depressed tendon reflexes, and high-arched feet.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked recessive, type 2
MedGen UID:
336803
Concept ID:
C1844873
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) hereditary neuropathy refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. The affected individual typically has distal muscle weakness and atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss, depressed tendon reflexes, and high-arched feet.
Anemia sideroblastic and spinocerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
335078
Concept ID:
C1845028
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia (XLSA/A) is characterized by moderate anemia and early-onset spinocerebellar syndrome in males, manifest primarily as delayed walking, ataxia evident in early childhood, dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesis. When present the intention tremor is mild and the dysarthria is mild to moderately severe. The ataxia has been described to be either non-progressive or slowly progressive. Upper motor neuron (UMN) signs in the legs, manifest by brisk deep tendon reflexes, unsustained ankle clonus, and equivocal or extensor plantar responses, are present in some males. Need for crutches or a wheelchair has been reported. Strabismus is seen in some males. Nystagmus and hypometric saccades may occur. Mild learning disability and depression are seen. The moderate hypochromic and microcytic anemia does not cause symptoms. Carrier (heterozygous) females have a normal neurologic examination and may show mild hematologic abnormalities.
ATR-X syndrome
MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or ocular hypertelorism, small nose, tented upper lip, and prominent or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech.
Albinism deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
375573
Concept ID:
C1845068
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic, fried type
MedGen UID:
375576
Concept ID:
C1845078
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis Pigmentosa 34
MedGen UID:
375582
Concept ID:
C1845104
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked mental retardation, syndromic, Claes-Jensen type
MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation X-linked with cerebellar hypoplasia and distinctive facial appearance
MedGen UID:
336920
Concept ID:
C1845366
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, X-linked, with short stature
MedGen UID:
375754
Concept ID:
C1845845
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked mental retardation with short stature, hypogonadism and abnormal gait
MedGen UID:
337334
Concept ID:
C1845861
Disease or Syndrome
This form of syndromic X-linked mental retardation is characterized primarily by short stature, hypogonadism, and abnormal gait, with other more variable features such as speech delay, prominent lower lip, and tremor (Cabezas et al., 2000).
Creatine deficiency, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337451
Concept ID:
C1845862
Disease or Syndrome
The cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDS), inborn errors of creatine metabolism, include the two creatine biosynthesis disorders, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT or GATM) deficiency, and the creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency. Intellectual disability and seizures are common to all three CCDS. The majority of individuals with GAMT deficiency have a behavior disorder that can include autistic behaviors and self-mutilation; a significant proportion have pyramidal/extrapyramidal findings. Onset is between ages three months and three years. Only seven individuals with AGAT deficiency have been reported. The phenotype of SLC6A8 deficiency in affected males ranges from mild intellectual disability and speech delay to severe intellectual disability, seizures, and behavior disorder; age at diagnosis ranges from two to 66 years. Females heterozygous for SLC6A8 deficiency may have learning and behavior problems.
Mental retardation X-linked syndromic 11
MedGen UID:
335348
Concept ID:
C1846145
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation X-linked syndromic 7
MedGen UID:
337403
Concept ID:
C1846170
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis
MedGen UID:
335467
Concept ID:
C1846588
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorders involve retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprise a clinical continuum from infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP) to juvenile forms without lower motor neuron involvement (juvenile primary lateral sclerosis [JPLS]) to forms with lower motor neuron involvement (autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [JALS]). IAHSP is characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome. JPLS is characterized by onset and loss of ability to walk during the second year of life, progressive signs of upper motor neuron disease, wheelchair dependence by adolescence, and later loss of motor speech production. JALS is characterized by onset during childhood (mean age of onset 6.5 years), spasticity of facial muscles, uncontrolled laughter, spastic dysarthria, spastic gait, inconstant moderate muscle atrophy, bladder dysfunction, and sensory disturbances; some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Spinocerebellar ataxia autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
376048
Concept ID:
C1847114
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome
MedGen UID:
341133
Concept ID:
C1848030
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency
MedGen UID:
341248
Concept ID:
C1848533
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) present at puberty; common characteristics of the disease include progressive ataxia, clumsiness of the hands, loss of proprioception (especially of vibration and joint position sense), and areflexia. Other features often observed are dysdiadochokinesia, positive Romberg sign, head titubation, decreased visual acuity, and positive Babinski sign. The phenotype and disease severity vary widely among families with different mutations; age of onset and disease course are more uniform within a given family, but symptoms and disease severity can vary even among sibs.
THYROID HORMONOGENESIS, GENETIC DEFECT IN, 2B
MedGen UID:
338550
Concept ID:
C1848797
Disease or Syndrome
HYPOTHYROIDISM, CONGENITAL, DUE TO DYSHORMONOGENESIS, 2B
MedGen UID:
336417
Concept ID:
C1848798
Disease or Syndrome
Rodrigues blindness
MedGen UID:
340297
Concept ID:
C1849332
Disease or Syndrome
Susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever
MedGen UID:
376575
Concept ID:
C1849384
Finding
Radioulnar synostosis, unilateral, with developmental retardation and hypotonia
MedGen UID:
341460
Concept ID:
C1849470
Disease or Syndrome
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy
MedGen UID:
340341
Concept ID:
C1849508
Disease or Syndrome
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is characterized by intractable seizures that are not controlled with antiepileptic drugs but that respond both clinically and electrographically to large daily supplements of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Multiple types of clinical seizures have been reported in individuals with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Dramatic presentations consisting of prolonged seizures and recurrent episodes of status epilepticus are typical; recurrent self-limited events including partial seizures, generalized seizures, atonic seizures, myoclonic events, and infantile spasms also occur. Affected individuals may have electrographic seizures without clinical correlates. Infants with the classic neonatal presentation begin to experience seizures soon after birth. Atypical features include: late-onset seizures (age =3 years); seizures that initially respond to antiepileptic drugs and then become intractable; seizures during early life that do not respond to pyridoxine but that are then controlled with pyridoxine several months later; and prolonged seizure-free intervals (=5 1/2 months) that occur after pyridoxine discontinuation. Intellectual disability is common.
Pseudopapilledema, ocular hypotelorism, blepharophimosis, and hand anomalies
MedGen UID:
337882
Concept ID:
C1849661
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudoneonatal adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
376636
Concept ID:
C1849678
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also D-bifunctional protein deficiency (261515), caused by mutation in the HSD17B4 gene (601860) on chromosome 5q2. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995).
Pellagra like syndrome
MedGen UID:
337955
Concept ID:
C1850052
Disease or Syndrome
Sialidosis type I
MedGen UID:
376810
Concept ID:
C1850510
Disease or Syndrome
Sialidosis is a severe inherited disorder that affects many organs and tissues, including the nervous system. This disorder is divided into two types, which are distinguished by the age at which symptoms appear and the severity of features. Sialidosis type I, also referred to as cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome, is the less severe form of this condition. People with type I develop signs and symptoms of sialidosis in their teens or twenties. Initially, affected individuals experience problems walking (gait disturbance) and/or a loss of sharp vision (reduced visual acuity). Individuals with sialidosis type I also experience muscle twitches (myoclonus), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), leg tremors, and seizures. The myoclonus worsens over time, causing difficulty sitting, standing, or walking. People with sialidosis type I eventually require wheelchair assistance. Affected individuals have progressive vision problems, including impaired color vision or night blindness. An eye abnormality called a cherry-red spot, which can be identified with an eye examination, is characteristic of this disorder. Sialidosis type I does not affect intelligence or life expectancy. Sialidosis type II, the more severe type of the disorder, is further divided into congenital, infantile, and juvenile forms. The features of congenital sialidosis type II can develop before birth. This form of sialidosis is associated with an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites) or widespread swelling before birth caused by fluid accumulation (hydrops fetalis). Affected infants may also have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), abnormal bone development (dysostosis multiplex), and distinctive facial features that are often described as "coarse." As a result of these serious health problems, individuals with congenital sialidosis type II usually are stillborn or die soon after birth. Infantile sialidosis type II shares some features with the congenital form, although the signs and symptoms are slightly less severe and begin within the first year of life. Features of the infantile form include hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, "coarse" facial features, short stature, and intellectual disability. As children with infantile sialidosis type II get older, they may develop myoclonus and cherry-red spots. Other signs and symptoms include hearing loss, overgrowth of the gums (gingival hyperplasia), and widely spaced teeth. Affected individuals may survive into childhood or adolescence. The juvenile form has the least severe signs and symptoms of the different forms of sialidosis type II. Features of this condition usually appear in late childhood and may include mildly "coarse" facial features, mild bone abnormalities, cherry-red spots, myoclonus, intellectual disability, and dark red spots on the skin (angiokeratomas). The life expectancy of individuals with juvenile sialidosis type II varies depending on the severity of symptoms.
Erythrokeratodermia with ataxia
MedGen UID:
338703
Concept ID:
C1851481
Disease or Syndrome
Neuhauser Eichner Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
342069
Concept ID:
C1851708
Disease or Syndrome
EDS VIIB
MedGen UID:
342092
Concept ID:
C1851801
Disease or Syndrome
Dyslexia 1
MedGen UID:
338828
Concept ID:
C1851967
Finding
Dyslexia is a disorder manifested by difficulty learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. It is among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, with a prevalence of 5 to 12%. Although there is evidence for familial clustering and heritability, the disorder is considered a complex multifactorial trait (Schumacher et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Dyslexia Additional dyslexia susceptibility loci include DYX2 (600202) on chromosome 6p21.1, DYX3 (604254) on chromosome 2p16-p15, DYX5 (606896) on chromosome 3p12-q13, DYX6 (606616) on chromosome 18p11.2, DYX8 (608995) on chromosome 1p36-p34, and DYX9 (300509) on chromosome Xq27.3. See MAPPING for other possible dyslexia susceptibility loci.
DYSLEXIA, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 4
MedGen UID:
338829
Concept ID:
C1851968
Finding
DYSLEXIA, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 7
MedGen UID:
338830
Concept ID:
C1851969
Finding
Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis
MedGen UID:
342870
Concept ID:
C1853396
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorders involve retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprise a clinical continuum from infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP) to juvenile forms without lower motor neuron involvement (juvenile primary lateral sclerosis [JPLS]) to forms with lower motor neuron involvement (autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [JALS]). IAHSP is characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome. JPLS is characterized by onset and loss of ability to walk during the second year of life, progressive signs of upper motor neuron disease, wheelchair dependence by adolescence, and later loss of motor speech production. JALS is characterized by onset during childhood (mean age of onset 6.5 years), spasticity of facial muscles, uncontrolled laughter, spastic dysarthria, spastic gait, inconstant moderate muscle atrophy, bladder dysfunction, and sensory disturbances; some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
22q13.3 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13.3 deletion syndrome) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, absent to severely delayed speech, and normal to accelerated growth. Most individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autistic-like affect.
Genitopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
Genitopatellar syndrome is a rare disorder consisting of microcephaly, severe psychomotor retardation, and characteristic coarse facial features, including broad nose and small or retracted chin, associated with congenital flexion contractures of the lower extremities, abnormal or missing patellae, and urogenital anomalies (summary by Penttinen et al., 2009). The SBBYS variant of Ohdo syndrome (603736) is an allelic disorder with overlapping features.
Neuroferritinopathy
MedGen UID:
381211
Concept ID:
C1853578
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroferritinopathy typically presents with progressive adult-onset chorea or dystonia affecting one or two limbs, and subtle cognitive deficits. The movement disorder involves additional limbs within five to ten years and becomes more generalized within 20 years. When present, asymmetry remains throughout the course of the disorder. The majority of individuals develop a characteristic orofacial action-specific dystonia related to speech that leads to dysarthrophonia. Frontalis overactivity and orolingual dyskinesia are common. Cognitive deficits and behavioral issues become major problems with time.
Methylmalonic aciduria due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency
MedGen UID:
344424
Concept ID:
C1855114
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated methylmalonic acidemia/aciduria is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut(0) enzymatic subtype or mut(–) enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD variant 2 type), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Onset of the manifestations of isolated methylmalonic acidemia/aciduria ranges from the neonatal period to adulthood. All phenotypes demonstrate periods of relative health and intermittent metabolic decompensation, usually associated with intercurrent infections and stress. In the neonatal period the disease can present with lethargy, vomiting, hypotonia, hypothermia, respiratory distress, severe ketoacidosis, hyperammonemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia and can result in death. In the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype, the most common form, infants are normal at birth but develop lethargy, vomiting, dehydration, hepatomegaly, hypotonia, and encephalopathy. An intermediate B12-responsive phenotype can occasionally present in neonates, but usually presents in the first months or years of life; affected children exhibit anorexia, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay, and sometimes have protein aversion and/or vomiting and lethargy after protein intake. Atypical and "benign"/adult methylmalonic acidemia are associated with increased, albeit mild, urinary excretion of methylmalonate; however, it is uncertain if some of these individuals will develop symptoms. Major secondary complications of methylmalonic acidemia include developmental delay (variable); tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive renal failure; “metabolic stroke” (acute and chronic basal ganglia involvement); disabling movement disorder with choreoathetosis, dystonia, and para/quadriparesis; pancreatitis; growth failure; functional immune impairment; and optic nerve atrophy.
METHYLMALONIC ACIDURIA, mut(0) TYPE
MedGen UID:
381562
Concept ID:
C1855115
Disease or Syndrome
METHYLMALONIC ACIDURIA, mut(-) TYPE
MedGen UID:
343264
Concept ID:
C1855116
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyosis alopecia eclabion ectropion mental retardation
MedGen UID:
344577
Concept ID:
C1855788
Disease or Syndrome
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
341029
Concept ID:
C1855995
Disease or Syndrome
2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a condition that causes progressive damage to the brain. The major types of this disorder are called D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA). The main features of D-2-HGA are delayed development, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle movement, speech, vision, thinking, emotion, and memory. Researchers have described two subtypes of D-2-HGA, type I and type II. The two subtypes are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of inheritance, although they also have some differences in signs and symptoms. Type II tends to begin earlier and often causes more severe health problems than type I. Type II may also be associated with a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), a feature that is typically not found with type I. L-2-HGA particularly affects a region of the brain called the cerebellum, which is involved in coordinating movements. As a result, many affected individuals have problems with balance and muscle coordination (ataxia). Additional features of L-2-HGA can include delayed development, seizures, speech difficulties, and an unusually large head (macrocephaly). Typically, signs and symptoms of this disorder begin during infancy or early childhood. The disorder worsens over time, usually leading to severe disability by early adulthood. Combined D,L-2-HGA causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy. Affected infants have severe seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and breathing and feeding problems. They usually survive only into infancy or early childhood.
Hall Riggs mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
341089
Concept ID:
C1856198
Disease or Syndrome
Ghosal syndrome
MedGen UID:
344739
Concept ID:
C1856465
Disease or Syndrome
Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia is a rare inherited condition characterized by abnormally thick bones and a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). Signs and symptoms of the condition become apparent in early childhood. In affected individuals, the long bones in the arms and legs are unusually dense and wide. The bone changes specifically affect the shafts of the long bones, called diaphyses, and areas near the ends of the bones called metaphyses. The bone abnormalities can lead to bowing of the legs and difficulty walking. Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia also causes scarring (fibrosis) of the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside long bones where blood cells are formed. The abnormal bone marrow cannot produce enough red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Signs and symptoms of anemia that have been reported in people with Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia include extremely pale skin (pallor) and excessive tiredness (fatigue).
Gaucher disease type 3A
MedGen UID:
383926
Concept ID:
C1856491
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease is an inherited disorder that affects many of the body's organs and tissues. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary widely among affected individuals. Researchers have described several types of Gaucher disease based on their characteristic features. Type 1 Gaucher disease is the most common form of this condition. Type 1 is also called non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease because the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) are usually not affected. The features of this condition range from mild to severe and may appear anytime from childhood to adulthood. Major signs and symptoms include enlargement of the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), a low number of red blood cells (anemia), easy bruising caused by a decrease in blood platelets (thrombocytopenia), lung disease, and bone abnormalities such as bone pain, fractures, and arthritis. Types 2 and 3 Gaucher disease are known as neuronopathic forms of the disorder because they are characterized by problems that affect the central nervous system. In addition to the signs and symptoms described above, these conditions can cause abnormal eye movements, seizures, and brain damage. Type 2 Gaucher disease usually causes life-threatening medical problems beginning in infancy. Type 3 Gaucher disease also affects the nervous system, but tends to progress more slowly than type 2. The most severe type of Gaucher disease is called the perinatal lethal form. This condition causes severe or life-threatening complications starting before birth or in infancy. Features of the perinatal lethal form can include extensive swelling caused by fluid accumulation before birth (hydrops fetalis); dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) or other skin abnormalities; hepatosplenomegaly; distinctive facial features; and serious neurological problems. As its name indicates, most infants with the perinatal lethal form of Gaucher disease survive for only a few days after birth. Another form of Gaucher disease is known as the cardiovascular type because it primarily affects the heart, causing the heart valves to harden (calcify). People with the cardiovascular form of Gaucher disease may also have eye abnormalities, bone disease, and mild enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly).
Gaucher disease type 3B
MedGen UID:
344746
Concept ID:
C1856492
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease is an inherited disorder that affects many of the body's organs and tissues. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary widely among affected individuals. Researchers have described several types of Gaucher disease based on their characteristic features. Type 1 Gaucher disease is the most common form of this condition. Type 1 is also called non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease because the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) are usually not affected. The features of this condition range from mild to severe and may appear anytime from childhood to adulthood. Major signs and symptoms include enlargement of the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), a low number of red blood cells (anemia), easy bruising caused by a decrease in blood platelets (thrombocytopenia), lung disease, and bone abnormalities such as bone pain, fractures, and arthritis. Types 2 and 3 Gaucher disease are known as neuronopathic forms of the disorder because they are characterized by problems that affect the central nervous system. In addition to the signs and symptoms described above, these conditions can cause abnormal eye movements, seizures, and brain damage. Type 2 Gaucher disease usually causes life-threatening medical problems beginning in infancy. Type 3 Gaucher disease also affects the nervous system, but tends to progress more slowly than type 2. The most severe type of Gaucher disease is called the perinatal lethal form. This condition causes severe or life-threatening complications starting before birth or in infancy. Features of the perinatal lethal form can include extensive swelling caused by fluid accumulation before birth (hydrops fetalis); dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) or other skin abnormalities; hepatosplenomegaly; distinctive facial features; and serious neurological problems. As its name indicates, most infants with the perinatal lethal form of Gaucher disease survive for only a few days after birth. Another form of Gaucher disease is known as the cardiovascular type because it primarily affects the heart, causing the heart valves to harden (calcify). People with the cardiovascular form of Gaucher disease may also have eye abnormalities, bone disease, and mild enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly).
Gaucher disease, Norrbottnian type
MedGen UID:
383927
Concept ID:
C1856493
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysa bullosa simplex and limb girdle muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
347335
Concept ID:
C1856936
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early childhood onset of progressive muscular dystrophy and blistering skin changes (Fine et al., 1989). Fine et al. (1991) reported a revised classification of the subtypes of inherited epidermolysis bullosa. In reports of 2 consensus meetings on EB, Fine et al. (2000, 2008) referred to EB with muscular dystrophy due to PLEC1 mutations as a form of basal simplex EB. Fine et al. (2000, 2008) also eliminated the term 'hemidesmosomal,' which had previously been proposed for this entity (Uitto et al., 1997) because ultrastructural analysis can demonstrate tissue abnormalities of the hemidesmosomes.
CLEFT LIP WITH OR WITHOUT CLEFT PALATE, NONSYNDROMIC, 7
MedGen UID:
341680
Concept ID:
C1857043
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
387795
Concept ID:
C1857316
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL) is characterized by fractures (resulting from radiologically demonstrable polycystic osseous lesions), frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia beginning in the fourth decade. The clinical course of PLOSL can be divided into four stages: (1) The latent stage is characterized by normal early development. (2) The osseous stage (3rd decade of life) is characterized by pain and tenderness, mostly in ankles and feet, usually following strain or injury. Fractures are typically diagnosed several years later, most commonly in the bones of the extremities. (3) In the early neurologic stage (4th decade of life), a change of personality begins to develop insidiously. Affected individuals show a frontal lobe syndrome (loss of judgment, euphoria, loss of social inhibitions, disturbance of concentration, and lack of insight, libido, and motor persistence) leading to serious social problems. (4) The late neurologic stage is characterized by progressive dementia and loss of mobility. Death usually occurs before age 50 years.
Groll Hirschowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
347426
Concept ID:
C1857338
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
347610
Concept ID:
C1858054
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Huntington disease-like 3
MedGen UID:
347622
Concept ID:
C1858114
Disease or Syndrome
As its name suggests, a Huntington disease-like (HDL) syndrome is a condition that resembles Huntington disease. Researchers have described four HDL syndromes, designated Huntington disease-like 1 (HDL1) through Huntington disease-like 4 (HDL4). These progressive brain disorders are characterized by uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability. HDL syndromes occur in people with the characteristic features of Huntington disease who do not have a mutation in HD, the gene typically associated with that disorder. HDL1, HDL2, and HDL4 usually appear in early to mid-adulthood, although they can begin earlier in life. The first signs and symptoms of these conditions often include irritability, emotional problems, small involuntary movements, poor coordination, and trouble learning new information or making decisions. Many affected people develop involuntary jerking or twitching movements known as chorea. As the disease progresses, these abnormal movements become more pronounced. Affected individuals may develop problems with walking, speaking, and swallowing. People with these disorders also experience changes in personality and a decline in thinking and reasoning abilities. Individuals with an HDL syndrome can live for a few years to more than a decade after signs and symptoms begin. HDL3 begins much earlier in life than most of the other HDL syndromes (usually around age 3 or 4). Affected children experience a decline in thinking ability, difficulties with movement and speech, and seizures. Because HDL3 has a somewhat different pattern of signs and symptoms and a different pattern of inheritance, researchers are unsure whether it belongs in the same category as the other HDL syndromes.
Spastic paraplegia 11, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
388073
Concept ID:
C1858479
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 11 (SPG11) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs frequently associated with the following: mild intellectual disability with learning difficulties in childhood and/or progressive cognitive decline; peripheral neuropathy; pseudobulbar involvement; and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Less frequent findings include: cerebellar signs (ataxia, nystagmus, saccadic pursuit); retinal degeneration; pes cavus; scoliosis; and parkinsonism. Onset occurs mainly during infancy or adolescence (range: age 1-31 years). Most affected individuals become wheelchair bound one or two decades after disease onset.
ACERULOPLASMINEMIA
MedGen UID:
346940
Concept ID:
C1858581
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoceruloplasminemia
MedGen UID:
346941
Concept ID:
C1858582
Disease or Syndrome
Hemosiderosis, systemic, due to aceruloplasminemia
MedGen UID:
346942
Concept ID:
C1858583
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
347850
Concept ID:
C1859306
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347179
Concept ID:
C1859564
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
347180
Concept ID:
C1859565
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
347181
Concept ID:
C1859566
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
347182
Concept ID:
C1859567
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
347909
Concept ID:
C1859568
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
395295
Concept ID:
C1859569
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
347910
Concept ID:
C1859570
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
395439
Concept ID:
C1860224
Disease or Syndrome
Vasculopathy, retinal, with cerebral leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
348124
Concept ID:
C1860518
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy is an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder involving the microvessels of the brain and resulting in central nervous system degeneration with progressive loss of vision, stroke, motor impairment, and cognitive decline. Death occurs in most patients 5 to 10 years after onset. A subset of affected individuals have systemic vascular involvement evidenced by Raynaud's phenomenon, micronodular cirrhosis, and glomerular dysfunction (summary by Richards et al., 2007).
Thumb deformity and alopecia
MedGen UID:
348284
Concept ID:
C1861168
Disease or Syndrome
Stormorken syndrome
MedGen UID:
350028
Concept ID:
C1861451
Disease or Syndrome
Stormorken syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mild bleeding tendency due to platelet dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, anemia, asplenia, tubular aggregate myopathy, congenital miosis, and ichthyosis. Additional features may include headache or recurrent stroke-like episodes (summary by Misceo et al., 2014).
Ataxia, spastic, with congenital miosis
MedGen UID:
354750
Concept ID:
C1862441
Disease or Syndrome
AGLOSSIA-ADACTYLIA
MedGen UID:
354928
Concept ID:
C1863203
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease
MedGen UID:
355075
Concept ID:
C1863843
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is characterized pathologically by eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in neurons of the peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous systems associated with varying degrees of neuronal loss. Symptoms usually begin in childhood but adult-onset cases have also been described. Clinical expression is variable, depending on the sites of maximal neuronal loss, but is usually a multisystem degenerative process of the central nervous system or a visceral neuropathy (summary by Kimber et al., 1998). See the neuronal form of intestinal pseudoobstruction (243180).
Growth and mental retardation, mandibulofacial dysostosis, microcephaly, and cleft palate
MedGen UID:
355264
Concept ID:
C1864652
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly is a rare syndrome comprising progressive microcephaly, midface and malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, microtia, dysplastic ears, preauricular skin tags, significant developmental delay, and speech delay. Many patients have major sequelae, including choanal atresia that results in respiratory difficulties, conductive hearing loss, and cleft palate (summary by Lines et al., 2012).
Alzheimer disease, type 10
MedGen UID:
351228
Concept ID:
C1864828
Disease or Syndrome
17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
The KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Global psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with the KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome function in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include epilepsy (55%), congenital heart defects (39%), renal and urologic anomalies (37%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Speech development, delayed, with facial asymmetry, strabismus, and transverse earlobe crease
MedGen UID:
355803
Concept ID:
C1866802
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia with precocious puberty
MedGen UID:
401096
Concept ID:
C1866850
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, sensorineural deafness, mental retardation, and progressive nephropathy
MedGen UID:
355816
Concept ID:
C1866853
Disease or Syndrome
SMITH-MAGENIS CHROMOSOME REGION (disorder)
MedGen UID:
357164
Concept ID:
C1866927
Disease or Syndrome
Scholte syndrome
MedGen UID:
401129
Concept ID:
C1866985
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy, adult-onset, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
356995
Concept ID:
C1868512
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy is a slowly progressive and fatal disorder that presents in the fourth or fifth decade of life and is characterized clinically by early autonomic abnormalities, pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunction, and symmetric demyelination of the CNS. ADLD differs from multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders in that neuropathology shows preservation of oligodendroglia in the presence of subtotal demyelination and lack of astrogliosis (summary by Padiath et al., 2006). Characteristic MRI findings include T2-weighted hyperintense changes in the upper corticospinal tract and cerebellar peduncles, with later development of confluent white matter changes in the frontoparietal area with relative sparing of the periventricular white matter (summary by Schuster et al., 2011).
AUTISM, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 4
MedGen UID:
361812
Concept ID:
C1876176
Finding
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by distinctive facial features which become more apparent with age (100%), developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%), and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake (55%-60%). Global developmental delays are significant and intellectual disability is moderate to severe: mean age of walking is four to six years; most affected individuals are nonverbal. Other common findings are behavioral issues, hand stereotypic movements, seizures (40%-50%), constipation, and severe myopia.
Potocki-Lupski syndrome
MedGen UID:
410082
Concept ID:
C1970482
Disease or Syndrome
Potocki-Lupski syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, and congenital anomalies. All reported cases have occurred sporadically without bias in the parental origin of rearrangements. Most duplications are 3.7 Mb in size and only identifiable by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. Approximately 60% of PTLS patients harbor a microduplication of chromosome 17p11.2 reciprocal to the common recurrent 3.7-Mb microdeletion in SMS (summary by Shchelochkov et al., 2010).
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity is characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and is divided into a severe phenotype with infantile or early-childhood onset and a milder phenotype with late-juvenile or early-adult onset. Variable combinations of sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia observed in the severe type are not usually present in the mild type. In the mild type, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
393032
Concept ID:
C2673873
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
393033
Concept ID:
C2673874
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME, MODIFIERS OF
MedGen UID:
382246
Concept ID:
C2674004
Disease or Syndrome
Myokymia 1
MedGen UID:
436256
Concept ID:
C2674766
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393265
Concept ID:
C2674949
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
390767
Concept ID:
C2675336
Disease or Syndrome
The features of the chromosome 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome include autism, mental retardation, ataxia, seizures, developmental delays, and behavioral problems (Bundey et al., 1994; Burnside et al., 2011). See also chromosome 15q13.3 deletion syndrome (612001) and chromosome 15q11.2 deletion syndrome (615656). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autism, see 209850.
22q11.2 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
436417
Concept ID:
C2675369
Disease or Syndrome
22q11.2 duplication is defined for this GeneReview as the presence of a common 3-Mb or 1.5-Mb proximal tandem duplication. The 22q11.2 duplication phenotype appears to be generally mild and highly variable; findings range from apparently normal to intellectual disability/learning disability, delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation, and/or hypotonia. The high frequency with which the 22q11.2 duplication is found in an apparently normal parent of a proband suggests that many individuals can harbor a duplication of 22q11.2 with no discernible phenotypic effect.
2p15-16.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
Glass syndrome is a mental retardation syndrome characterized by dysmorphic facial features, including microcephaly, micrognathia, downslanting palpebral fissures, crowded teeth, and cleft palate. Additional features may include seizures, joint laxity, and happy demeanor (summary by Glass et al., 1989 and Urquhart et al., 2009).
Rett syndrome, zappella variant
MedGen UID:
393807
Concept ID:
C2677682
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyosis, X-Linked, Complicated
MedGen UID:
383170
Concept ID:
C2677713
Disease or Syndrome
AUTISM, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 14
MedGen UID:
437052
Concept ID:
C2677839
Finding
Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) is an X-linked disorder affecting females and characterized by severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, and variable degrees of pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Affected individuals have very poor psychomotor development, often without independent ambulation or speech, and axial hypotonia with or without hypertonia. Some may have sensorineural hearing loss or eye anomalies. Dysmorphic features include overall poor growth, severe microcephaly (-3.5 to -10 SD), broad nasal bridge and tip, large ears, long philtrum, micrognathia, and hypertelorism (summary by Moog et al., 2011).
Christianson syndrome
MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
Christianson syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movement, severe global developmental delay, developmental regression, hypotonia, abnormal movements, and early-onset seizures of variable types. Carrier females may be mildly affected (summary by Schroer et al., 2010).
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, distal
MedGen UID:
395634
Concept ID:
C2678480
Disease or Syndrome
Dermatosparaxis
MedGen UID:
397792
Concept ID:
C2700425
Disease or Syndrome
Dermatosparaxis (meaning 'tearing of skin') is an autosomal recessive disorder of connective tissue resulting from deficiency of procollagen peptidase, an enzyme that aids in the processing of type I procollagen. The disorder and the responsible biochemical defect was first observed in cattle (Lapiere et al., 1971). Lapiere and Nusgens (1993) reviewed the discovery of dermatosparaxis in cattle, the elucidation of the disorder, its occurrence in other animals, and the delayed recognition of the disorder in the human. Beighton et al. (1998) reported on a revised nosology of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, designated the Villefranche classification. Major and minor diagnostic criteria were defined for each type and complemented whenever possible with laboratory findings. Six main descriptive types were substituted for earlier types numbered with Roman numerals: classic type (EDS I and II), hypermobility type (EDS III), vascular type (EDS IV), kyphoscoliosis type (EDS VI), arthrochalasia type (EDS VIIA and VIIB), and dermatosparaxis type (EDS VIIC). Six other forms were listed, including a category of 'unspecified forms.'
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate 5-Phosphatase Deficiency
MedGen UID:
398779
Concept ID:
C2713392
Disease or Syndrome
Steroid Sulfatase Deficiency Disease
MedGen UID:
403441
Concept ID:
C2717836
Disease or Syndrome
Placental sulfatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
404049
Concept ID:
C2720163
Disease or Syndrome
Atypical Rett syndrome
MedGen UID:
440664
Concept ID:
C2748910
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome Xq28 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
411727
Concept ID:
C2749007
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome Xp11.23-p11.22 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
440690
Concept ID:
C2749022
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked mental retardation, CASK-related
MedGen UID:
411367
Concept ID:
C2749054
Disease or Syndrome
MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED, WITH NYSTAGMUS
MedGen UID:
411738
Concept ID:
C2749055
Disease or Syndrome
Premature ovarian failure 1
MedGen UID:
411391
Concept ID:
C2749126
Disease or Syndrome
Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) is a condition that affects women and is characterized by reduced function of the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs in which egg cells are produced. As a form of primary ovarian insufficiency, FXPOI can cause irregular menstrual cycles, early menopause, an inability to have children (infertility), and elevated levels of a hormone known as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is produced in both males and females and helps regulate the development of reproductive cells (eggs in females and sperm in males). In females, the level of FSH rises and falls, but overall it increases as a woman ages. In younger women, elevated levels may indicate early menopause and fertility problems. The severity of FXPOI is variable. The most severely affected women have overt POI (formerly called premature ovarian failure). These women have irregular or absent menstrual periods and elevated FSH levels before age 40. Overt POI often causes infertility. Other women have occult POI; they have normal menstrual periods but reduced fertility, and they may have elevated levels of FSH (in which case, it is called biochemical POI). The reduction in ovarian function caused by FXPOI results in low levels of the hormone estrogen, which leads to many of the common signs and symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, insomnia, and thinning of the bones (osteoporosis). Women with FXPOI undergo menopause an average of 5 years earlier than women without the condition.
Primary Ovarian Insufficiency, Fragile X-Associated
MedGen UID:
411392
Concept ID:
C2749127
Disease or Syndrome
MYOKYMIA 1 WITH OR WITHOUT HYPOMAGNESEMIA
MedGen UID:
412988
Concept ID:
C2750572
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
414432
Concept ID:
C2751651
Disease or Syndrome
Giacheti syndrome
MedGen UID:
414543
Concept ID:
C2752043
Disease or Syndrome
Acromesomelic dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
419681
Concept ID:
C2930970
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysa bullosa simplex and limb girdle muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
418981
Concept ID:
C2931072
Disease or Syndrome
Telomeric 22q13 monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
444031
Concept ID:
C2931332
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac form of generalized glycogenosis
MedGen UID:
419391
Concept ID:
C2931347
Disease or Syndrome
Bulbospinal neuronopathy, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
444046
Concept ID:
C2931395
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary spastic paralysis, infantile onset ascending
MedGen UID:
419413
Concept ID:
C2931441
Disease or Syndrome
Bustos Simosa Pinto Cisternas syndrome
MedGen UID:
444067
Concept ID:
C2931488
Disease or Syndrome
Aspartylglucosamidase (AGA) deficiency
MedGen UID:
419178
Concept ID:
C2931840
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphyseal dysplasia 1, progressive
MedGen UID:
419507
Concept ID:
C2931842
Disease or Syndrome
Lysosomal beta-mannosidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
419519
Concept ID:
C2931893
Disease or Syndrome
Fumaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
424826
Concept ID:
C2936826
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 15
MedGen UID:
461477
Concept ID:
C3150127
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
CHROMOSOME 16p11.2 DELETION SYNDROME, 593-KB
MedGen UID:
461504
Concept ID:
C3150154
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16p11.2 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
461505
Concept ID:
C3150155
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 17q23.1-q23.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461957
Concept ID:
C3150607
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, stereotypic movements, epilepsy, and/or cerebral malformations
MedGen UID:
462050
Concept ID:
C3150700
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 4q21 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462106
Concept ID:
C3150756
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 17q21.31 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462137
Concept ID:
C3150787
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome, 7.1- to 8.7-MB
MedGen UID:
462208
Concept ID:
C3150858
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized phenotypically by dysmorphic facial features, feeding difficulties, recurrent ear infections, developmental delay, and cognitive impairment. Additional features, such as heart defects and short stature, are variable (Ballif et al., 2007; Battaglia et al., 2009). The pericentric region of chromosome 16, specifically involving 16p12-p11, is a structurally complex region enriched in repetitive sequence elements, rendering this region susceptible to deletion or rearrangement (Ballif et al., 2007). There are several phenotypes associated with variation in this region: see 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism; see 136570 for discussion of a recurrent 520-kb deletion at 16p12.1 associated with developmental delay and craniofacial dysmorphism; and see 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay. Battaglia et al. (2009) emphasized that the region at chromosome 16p11.2 that confers susceptibility to autism (AUTS14; see 611913) is located more centromeric to and is distinct from the 16p12.2-p11.2 region involved in the multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability phenotype.
Chromosome 17q11.2 deletion syndrome, 1.4-mb
MedGen UID:
462278
Concept ID:
C3150928
Disease or Syndrome
Approximately 5 to 20% of all patients with neurofibromatosis type I (162200) carry a heterozygous deletion of approximately 1.4 Mb involving the NF1 gene and contiguous genes lying in its flanking regions (Riva et al., 2000; Jenne et al., 2001), which is caused by nonallelic homologous recombination of NF1 repeats A and C (Dorschner et al., 2000). The 'NF1 microdeletion syndrome' is often characterized by a more severe phenotype than that observed in the majority of NF1 patients. In particular, patients with NF1 microdeletion often show variable facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, developmental delay, an excessive number of early-onset neurofibromas (Venturin et al., 2004), and an increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (De Raedt et al., 2003).
MENTAL RETARDATION AND PSORIASIS
MedGen UID:
477241
Concept ID:
C3275610
Disease or Syndrome
CHROMOSOME 2q23.1 DELETION SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
478720
Concept ID:
C3277090
Disease or Syndrome
CHROMOSOME 15q11.2 MICRODUPLICATION SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
478918
Concept ID:
C3277288
Disease or Syndrome
GALACTOSEMIA, DUARTE VARIANT
MedGen UID:
479776
Concept ID:
C3278146
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphedema, primary, with myelodysplasia
MedGen UID:
481294
Concept ID:
C3279664
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 17q12 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
482767
Concept ID:
C3281137
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 17q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482768
Concept ID:
C3281138
Disease or Syndrome
Hemifacial microsomia
MedGen UID:
501171
Concept ID:
C3495417
Congenital Abnormality
NF1 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
501218
Concept ID:
C3495679
Disease or Syndrome
ICHTHYOSIS WITH ALOPECIA, ECLABIUM, ECTROPION, AND MENTAL RETARDATION
MedGen UID:
763379
Concept ID:
C3550465
Disease or Syndrome
AUTISM, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 14A
MedGen UID:
765405
Concept ID:
C3552491
Finding

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Enderby P
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;110:273-81. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52901-5.00022-8. PMID: 23312647
Miller N, Mshana G, Msuya O, Dotchin C, Walker R, Aris E
S Afr J Commun Disord 2012 Dec;59:27-33. PMID: 23409616
Vuković M, Sujić R, Petrović-Lazić M, Miller N, Milutinović D, Babac S, Vuković I
Brain Lang 2012 Oct;123(1):22-9. Epub 2012 Aug 3 doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2012.06.008. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22863300
Itaquy RB, Favero SR, Ribeiro Mde C, Barea LM, Almeida ST, Mancopes R
J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol 2011 Dec;23(4):385-9. PMID: 22231062
Lai G, Schneider HD, Schwarzenberger JC, Hirsch J
Radiology 2011 Aug;260(2):521-30. Epub 2011 May 31 doi: 10.1148/radiol.11101576. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21628495

Diagnosis

Enderby P
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;110:273-81. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52901-5.00022-8. PMID: 23312647
Miller N, Mshana G, Msuya O, Dotchin C, Walker R, Aris E
S Afr J Commun Disord 2012 Dec;59:27-33. PMID: 23409616
Josephs KA, Duffy JR, Strand EA, Machulda MM, Senjem ML, Master AV, Lowe VJ, Jack CR Jr, Whitwell JL
Brain 2012 May;135(Pt 5):1522-36. Epub 2012 Mar 1 doi: 10.1093/brain/aws032. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22382356Free PMC Article
Folker JE, Murdoch BE, Rosen KM, Cahill LM, Delatycki MB, Corben LA, Vogel AP
Int J Lang Commun Disord 2012 Jan-Feb;47(1):65-76. Epub 2011 Aug 19 doi: 10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00078.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22268902
Itaquy RB, Favero SR, Ribeiro Mde C, Barea LM, Almeida ST, Mancopes R
J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol 2011 Dec;23(4):385-9. PMID: 22231062

Therapy

Tuominen J, Yrjänä S, Ukkonen A, Koivukangas J
Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2013 Oct;155(10):1805-12. Epub 2013 Aug 18 doi: 10.1007/s00701-013-1837-3. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23955509
Shamma S, Lorenzi C
J Acoust Soc Am 2013 May;133(5):2818-33. doi: 10.1121/1.4795783. PMID: 23654388Free PMC Article
Kim YH, Kim CH, Kim JS, Lee SK, Han JH, Kim CY, Chung CK
J Neurosurg 2013 Jul;119(1):7-14. Epub 2013 May 3 doi: 10.3171/2013.3.JNS121492. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23641824
Miller N, Mshana G, Msuya O, Dotchin C, Walker R, Aris E
S Afr J Commun Disord 2012 Dec;59:27-33. PMID: 23409616
Cantiniaux S, Vaugoyeau M, Robert D, Horrelou-Pitek C, Mancini J, Witjas T, Azulay JP
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010 Feb;81(2):177-84. Epub 2009 Sep 30 doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2009.174375. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19793764

Prognosis

Kim YH, Kim CH, Kim JS, Lee SK, Han JH, Kim CY, Chung CK
J Neurosurg 2013 Jul;119(1):7-14. Epub 2013 May 3 doi: 10.3171/2013.3.JNS121492. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23641824
Fredelake S, Hohmann V
Hear Res 2012 May;287(1-2):76-90. Epub 2012 Mar 20 doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2012.03.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22465681
Strait DL, Hornickel J, Kraus N
Behav Brain Funct 2011 Oct 17;7:44. doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-7-44. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22005291Free PMC Article
Yunusova Y, Green JR, Wang J, Pattee G, Zinman L
J Vis Exp 2011 Feb 21;(48) doi: 10.3791/2422. PMID: 21372794Free PMC Article
Padovani A, Cosseddu M, Premi E, Archetti S, Papetti A, Agosti C, Bigni B, Cerini C, Paghera B, Bellelli G, Borroni B
J Alzheimers Dis 2010;22(3):923-31. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-101206. PMID: 20858950

Clinical prediction guides

Fredelake S, Hohmann V
Hear Res 2012 May;287(1-2):76-90. Epub 2012 Mar 20 doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2012.03.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22465681
Josephs KA, Duffy JR, Strand EA, Machulda MM, Senjem ML, Master AV, Lowe VJ, Jack CR Jr, Whitwell JL
Brain 2012 May;135(Pt 5):1522-36. Epub 2012 Mar 1 doi: 10.1093/brain/aws032. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22382356Free PMC Article
Folker JE, Murdoch BE, Rosen KM, Cahill LM, Delatycki MB, Corben LA, Vogel AP
Int J Lang Commun Disord 2012 Jan-Feb;47(1):65-76. Epub 2011 Aug 19 doi: 10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00078.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22268902
Itaquy RB, Favero SR, Ribeiro Mde C, Barea LM, Almeida ST, Mancopes R
J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol 2011 Dec;23(4):385-9. PMID: 22231062
Strait DL, Hornickel J, Kraus N
Behav Brain Funct 2011 Oct 17;7:44. doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-7-44. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22005291Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Boyle J, McCartney E, O'Hare A, Law J
Dev Med Child Neurol 2010 Nov;52(11):994-9. Epub 2010 Aug 31 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03750.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20813021
Tang BG, Feldman HM, Padden C, Israeli N, Stein MT
J Dev Behav Pediatr 2009 Aug;30(4):327-30. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181b0f04e. PMID: 19672159
Henry JD, Beatty WW
Neuropsychologia 2006;44(7):1166-74. Epub 2005 Nov 15 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.10.006. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 16293271
Bakheit AM
Expert Rev Neurother 2004 Mar;4(2):211-7. doi: 10.1586/14737175.4.2.211. PMID: 15853562

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