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Results: 1 to 20 of 34

1.

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi (PWS) syndrome is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common; characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus often occurs in obese individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Shprintzen syndrome

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a range of findings including the following: Congenital heart disease (74% of individuals), particularly conotruncal malformations (tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and truncus arteriosus). Palatal abnormalities (69%), particularly velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate. Characteristic facial features (present in the majority of individuals of northern European heritage). Learning difficulties (70%-90%). An immune deficiency (regardless of the clinical presentation) (77%) . Additional findings include the following: Hypocalcemia (50%). Significant feeding and swallowing problems; constipation with or without structural gastrointestinal anomalies (intestinal malrotation, imperforate anus, and Hirschsprung disease). Renal anomalies (31%). Hearing loss (both conductive and sensorineural). Laryngotracheoesophageal anomalies. Growth hormone deficiency. Autoimmune disorders. Seizures (idiopathic or associated with hypocalcemia). CNS anomalies including tethered cord. Skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis with or without vertebral anomalies, clubbed feet, polydactyly, and craniosynostosis). Ophthalmologic abnormalities (strabismus, posterior embryotoxon, tortuous retinal vessels, scleracornea, and anophthalmia). Enamel hypoplasia. Malignancies (rare). Developmental delay (in particular delays in emergence of language), intellectual disability, and learning differences (non-verbal learning disability where the verbal IQ is significantly greater than the performance IQ) are common. Autism or autistic spectrum disorder is found in approximately 20% of children and psychiatric illness (specifically schizophrenia) is present in 25% of adults; however, attention deficit disorder, anxiety, perseveration, and difficulty with social interactions are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
65085
Concept ID:
C0220704
Disease or Syndrome
3.

DiGeorge sequence

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a range of findings including the following: Congenital heart disease (74% of individuals), particularly conotruncal malformations (tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and truncus arteriosus). Palatal abnormalities (69%), particularly velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate. Characteristic facial features (present in the majority of individuals of northern European heritage). Learning difficulties (70%-90%). An immune deficiency (regardless of the clinical presentation) (77%) . Additional findings include the following: Hypocalcemia (50%). Significant feeding and swallowing problems; constipation with or without structural gastrointestinal anomalies (intestinal malrotation, imperforate anus, and Hirschsprung disease). Renal anomalies (31%). Hearing loss (both conductive and sensorineural). Laryngotracheoesophageal anomalies. Growth hormone deficiency. Autoimmune disorders. Seizures (idiopathic or associated with hypocalcemia). CNS anomalies including tethered cord. Skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis with or without vertebral anomalies, clubbed feet, polydactyly, and craniosynostosis). Ophthalmologic abnormalities (strabismus, posterior embryotoxon, tortuous retinal vessels, scleracornea, and anophthalmia). Enamel hypoplasia. Malignancies (rare). Developmental delay (in particular delays in emergence of language), intellectual disability, and learning differences (non-verbal learning disability where the verbal IQ is significantly greater than the performance IQ) are common. Autism or autistic spectrum disorder is found in approximately 20% of children and psychiatric illness (specifically schizophrenia) is present in 25% of adults; however, attention deficit disorder, anxiety, perseveration, and difficulty with social interactions are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Eichsfeld type congenital muscular dystrophy

Multiminicore disease (MmD) is broadly classified into four groups: Classic form (75% of individuals). Moderate form, with hand involvement (<10%). Antenatal form, with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (<10%). Ophthalmoplegic form (<10%). Onset of the classic form is usually congenital or early in childhood with neonatal hypotonia, delayed motor development, axial muscle weakness, scoliosis, and significant respiratory involvement (often with secondary cardiac impairment). Spinal rigidity of varying severity is present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98047
Concept ID:
C0410180
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair

MedGen UID:
334697
Concept ID:
C1843181
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
7.

X-linked mental retardation with marfanoid habitus syndrome

The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1) and Lujan syndrome (LS). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, high nasal root, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
167096
Concept ID:
C0796022
Congenital Abnormality
8.

Renpenning syndrome 1

Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Branchiooculofacial syndrome

The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical [90%] or infra- or supra-auricular [60%]) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous “hemangiomatous” lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7(th) cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
10.

17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome

The KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Global psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with the KANSL1-related intellectual disability syndrome function in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include epilepsy (55%), congenital heart defects (39%), renal and urologic anomalies (37%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myofibrillar myopathy, BAG3-related

Myofibrillar myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset in the first decade of rapidly progressive generalized and proximal muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal deformities related to muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy shows fiber-type grouping, disruption of the Z lines, and filamentous inclusions, and sural nerve biopsy shows a neuropathy, often with giant axonal neurons. Most patients are severely affected by the second decade and need cardiac transplant, ventilation, and/or a wheelchair (summary by Jaffer et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
414119
Concept ID:
C2751831
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is a disorder that causes weakness of the skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. The weakness most often starts in the muscles around the eyes, causing drooping of the eyelids (ptosis) and difficulty coordinating eye movements, which results in blurred or double vision. In a form of the disorder called ocular myasthenia, the weakness remains confined to the eye muscles. In most people with myasthenia gravis, however, additional muscles in the face and neck are affected. Affected individuals may have unusual facial expressions, difficulty holding up the head, speech impairment (dysarthria), and chewing and swallowing problems (dysphagia) that may lead to choking, gagging, or drooling. Other muscles in the body are also affected in some people with myasthenia gravis. The muscles of the arms and legs may be involved, causing affected individuals to have changes in their gait or trouble with lifting objects, rising from a seated position, or climbing stairs. The muscle weakness tends to fluctuate over time; it typically worsens with activity and improves with rest. Weakness of the muscles in the chest wall and the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm) can cause breathing problems in some people with myasthenia gravis. About 10 percent of people with this disorder experience a potentially life-threatening complication in which these respiratory muscles weaken to the point that breathing is dangerously impaired, and the affected individual requires ventilation assistance. This respiratory failure, called a myasthenic crisis, may be triggered by stresses such as infections or reactions to medications. People can develop myasthenia gravis at any age. For reasons that are unknown, it is most commonly diagnosed in women younger than age 40 and men older than age 60. It is uncommon in children, but some infants born to women with myasthenia gravis show signs and symptoms of the disorder for the first few days or weeks of life. This temporary occurrence of symptoms is called transient neonatal myasthenia gravis.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
7764
Concept ID:
C0026896
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis is an X-linked dominant sclerosing bone dysplasia that presents in females with macrocephaly, cleft palate, mild learning disabilities, sclerosis of the long bones and skull, and longitudinal striations visible on radiographs of the long bones, pelvis, and scapulae (Jenkins et al., 2009). In males, the disorder is usually associated with fetal or neonatal lethality. Occasional surviving males have, in addition to hyperostosis, cardiac, intestinal, and genitourinary malformations. Osteosclerosis in the cranial and facial bones leads to disfigurement and to disability due to pressure on cranial nerves, e.g., deafness. Osteopathia striata is a frequent feature of focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH; 305600). Although early reports of familial cases of this disorder appeared to suggest autosomal dominant inheritance (see, e.g., Horan and Beighton, 1978 and Konig et al., 1996), reappraisal of the literature (Behninger and Rott, 2000; Rott et al., 2003) and the finding of a molecular basis for the disorder by Jenkins et al. (2009) confirms that the inheritance pattern is X-linked dominant. Affected males who survive have a more severe phenotype than affected females, and sporadic male cases may result from somatic mosaicism (Behninger and Rott, 2000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
14.

22q11.2 duplication syndrome

22q11.2 duplication is defined for this GeneReview as the presence of a common 3-Mb or 1.5-Mb proximal tandem duplication. The 22q11.2 duplication phenotype appears to be generally mild and highly variable; findings range from apparently normal to intellectual disability/learning disability, delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation, and/or hypotonia. The high frequency with which the 22q11.2 duplication is found in an apparently normal parent of a proband suggests that many individuals can harbor a duplication of 22q11.2 with no discernible phenotypic effect. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436417
Concept ID:
C2675369
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Snyder Robinson syndrome

Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome characterized by asthenic build, facial dysmorphism with a prominent lower lip, kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, and speech abnormalities. Developmental delay usually presents as failure to meet early developmental milestones and then evolves to moderate to profound global intellectual disability (which appears to remain stable over time) and variable motor disability. Asthenic habitus and low muscle mass usually develop during the first year, even in males who are ambulatory. During the first decade, males with SRS develop osteoporosis, resulting in fractures in the absence of trauma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162918
Concept ID:
C0796160
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Cold-induced sweating syndrome 1

Crisponi syndrome, the infantile presentation of cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS), is characterized by dysmorphic features (distinctive facies, lower facial weakness, flexion deformity at the elbows, camptodactyly with fisted hands, misshapen feet, and overriding toes), poor suck reflex and severely impaired swallowing, temperature spikes not associated with infections, and increased risk for seizures and sudden death. During the first decade of life, children with CISS develop profuse sweating of the face, arms, and chest with ambient temperatures below 18º to 22º C and often with other stimuli including apprehension or ingestion of sweets. Affected individuals sweat very little in hot environments and may feel overheated. In the second decade, progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis requires intervention. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338577
Concept ID:
C1848947
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome

Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome (STWS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowing of the long bones and other skeletal anomalies, episodic hyperthermia, and respiratory and feeding distress usually resulting in early death (Dagoneau et al., 2004). See also 'classic' Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1; 255800), a phenotypically similar but genetically distinct disorder caused by mutation in the HSPG2 gene (142461) on chromosome 1p36.1-p34. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
167109
Concept ID:
C0796176
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Spheroid body myopathy

Spheroid body myopathy is a form of myofibrillar myopathy (MFM). Myofibrillar myopathy refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of muscular disorders characterized by a pathologic morphologic pattern of myofibrillar degradation and abnormal accumulation of proteins involved with the sarcomeric Z disc (Foroud et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
401082
Concept ID:
C1866785
Disease or Syndrome
19.

2p15-16.1 microdeletion syndrome

MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Keutel syndrome

MedGen UID:
383722
Concept ID:
C1855607
Disease or Syndrome

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